concerned with form and use of language in different cultures and to what . Whereas traditional dialectology focussed on the relationship between language. One example I think of a lot is how different languages talk about the past. Many cultures don't have as many verb tenses for past experiences as English or. Risager () explores the link between language and culture when a communicative event takes and culture from three different perspectives: sociological, psychological and linguistic. Language in Society, 20, pp.
Formulation of ideas is not an independent process, strictly rational in the old sense, but is a part of a particular grammar, and differs, from slightly to greatly, between different grammars. We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages. The categories and types that isolate from the world of phenomena we do not find there because they stare every observer in the face; on the contrary, the world is presented in a kaleidoscopic flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds — and this means largely by the linguistic systems in our minds.
We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language. He does not go all the way to say that the structure of a language completely determines the way its speakers view the world. However, he does go on to add: The person most nearly free in such respects would be a linguist familiar with very many widely different linguistic systems.
As yet no linguist is in any such position. In this view different speakers will therefore experience the world differently insofar as the languages they speak differ structurally, and not even the most skilful linguist aware of all the subtleties of structural differences among languages can escape to see the world as it is rather than as it is presented through the screen of this language or that. That is, you perceive only what your language allows you to perceive, or predisposes you to perceive.
Therefore, speakers of different languages will have different world-views. Cultural aspect of language functioning mentioned earlier presupposes having more precise look at the phenomenon of culture, at the way it is usually viewed in language study as well as in related disciplines.
Rather we intend to view it as in the sense of whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society. That knowledge is socially acquired: Culture may find its manifestation in body language, gestures, and concepts of time, hospitality customs, and even expressions of friendliness.
While all these certainly reflect the cultural norms accepted in a particular society, the influence of culture on language use is both broader and deeper. Greenberg, a well-known ethnographer, maintains that culture involves three fundamental aspects of human experience: Culture includes everything that members of a social group have produced and developed — art, laws, and, of course, language which determines the way of their thinking.
All these are transmitted from one generation to another through a process known as enculturation.
3.4 Language, Society, and Culture
A person may 3 learn the values of his culture - and in such a way become enculturated - through the process of social interaction that is through the teachings of his parents, peer groups, schools, religious institutions, government agencies, and media. People who identify themselves as members of a social group professional or ethnic affiliation, nation, etc.
This is a view of culture that focuses on the ways of thinking, behaving and valuing currently shared by the members of the same social community. There is also another way of viewing culture — one which takes a more historical perspective. For the cultural ways which can be identified at any one time have evolved and become solidified over time, which is why they are so often taken for natural behavior.
The culture of everyday practices draws on the culture of shared history and traditions. This diachronic view of culture focuses on the way in which a social group represents itself and others through its material productions over time — its technological achievements, its monuments, its works of art, popular culture — that punctuate the development of its historical identity.
Whereas language is not a culture in this sense — it is a free code, distinct from the way people think and behave, though it plays a major role in the perpetuation of culture, practically in its printed form. An interesting view of the subject may be found in the manual by R. He traces the emergence of a new way of thinking about culture and society in general. But this later use, which had usually been a culture of something, was changed in the 19th century to culture as such, a thing in itself.
Thus we define culture as a certain membership in a discourse community that shares a common social space and history. Even when they have left that community, its members may retain, wherever they are, a common system of standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting. Thus there is no strictly defined term for the concept of culture. We can only be certain that our cultures and societies are constantly in the process of transition of change and that this change is to a large extent connected with the notion of culture.
The statement indicates that there is an obvious link between language the one uses and culture the one belongs to. Though, according to a well-known linguist Claire Kramsch, the relationship of language and culture in linguistics is one of the most hotly debated issues at present time [Kramsch We may amplify these words and try to apply them to the notions of cross- multi- and interculturalism, which are although closely connected with the language and culture evidently do not have precise definition of their own.
Depending on how culture is viewed and which discipline one comes from, various explanations of the above mentioned terms are used to refer to communication between people who do not share the same nationality, social or ethnic origin, gender, age, occupation. Anyway, both terms are used to characterize communication, say, between Chinese-Americans and African-Americans, between working-class and upper- class people, between men and women. Intercultural cooperation refers to the dialogue between minority cultures and dominant cultures, and is associated with issues of bilingualism and biculturalism.
Thus knowing the culture does not mean that one has an obligation to behave in accordance with its conventions. Similar distinction is made by Bruner [Bruner Hence biculturalism assumes that an individual identifies with and accepts the beliefs, values, and practices of particular culture, whereas interculturalism assumes a knowledge of rather than acceptance of another culture.
In becoming bicultural an individual would seek to acquire cultural pragmatic rules. In the case of interculturalism, on the other hand, an individual would seek only to gain knowledge of these rules. To acquire an international language clearly does not require biculturalism.
In an individual sense, it characterizes persons who belong to various discourse communities, and who therefore have the linguistic resources and social strategies to affiliate and identify with many different cultures and ways of using language. Convergence and divergence can take place within the same conversation and may be used by one or both conversational partners. Convergence functions to make others feel at ease, to increase understanding, and to enhance social bonds. Divergence may be used to intentionally make another person feel unwelcome or perhaps to highlight a personal, group, or cultural identity.
For example, African American women use certain verbal communication patterns when communicating with other African American women as a way to highlight their racial identity and create group solidarity. While communication accommodation might involve anything from adjusting how fast or slow you talk to how long you speak during each turn, code-switching Changing accents, dialects, or languages.
McGraw-Hill, There are many reasons that people might code-switch. Regarding accents, some people hire vocal coaches or speech-language pathologists to help them alter their accent. If a Southern person thinks their accent is leading others to form unfavorable impressions, they can consciously change their accent with much practice and effort.
Once their ability to speak without their Southern accent is honed, they may be able to switch very quickly between their native accent when speaking with friends and family and their modified accent when speaking in professional settings.
People who work or live in multilingual settings may engage in code-switching several times a day.
Increasing outsourcing and globalization have produced heightened pressures for code-switching. Now some Indian call center workers are going through intense training to be able to code-switch and accommodate the speaking style of their customers.
As our interactions continue to occur in more multinational contexts, the expectations for code-switching and accommodation are sure to increase.
It is important for us to consider the intersection of culture and power and think critically about the ways in which expectations for code-switching may be based on cultural biases. Anger in Western countries about job losses and economic uncertainty has increased the amount of racially targeted verbal attacks on international call center employees.
It was recently reported that more call center workers are now quitting their jobs as a result of the verbal abuse and that 25 percent of workers who have recently quit say such abuse was a major source of stress.
Such verbal attacks are not new; they represent a common but negative way that cultural bias explicitly manifests in our language use. Cultural bias A skewed way of viewing or talking about a group that is typically negative. Bias has a way of creeping into our daily language use, often under our awareness. Culturally biased language can make reference to one or more cultural identities, including race, gender, age, sexual orientation, and ability.
There are other sociocultural identities that can be the subject of biased language, but we will focus our discussion on these five. Much biased language is based on stereotypes and myths that influence the words we use.
We will discuss specific ways in which cultural bias manifests in our language and ways to become more aware of bias. That kind of pressure can lead people to avoid discussions about cultural identities or avoid people with different cultural identities.
Language, Society, and Culture
Our goal is not to eliminate all cultural bias from verbal communication or to never offend anyone, intentionally or otherwise. Instead, we will continue to use guidelines for ethical communication that we have already discussed and strive to increase our competence. The following discussion also focuses on bias rather than preferred terminology or outright discriminatory language, which will be addressed more in Chapter 8 "Culture and Communication"which discusses culture and communication.
Race People sometimes use euphemisms for race that illustrate bias because the terms are usually implicitly compared to the dominant group.
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. American Psychological Association,71— Terms like nonwhite set up whiteness as the norm, which implies that white people are the norm against which all other races should be compared. Gender Language has a tendency to exaggerate perceived and stereotypical differences between men and women.
One key to avoiding gendered bias in language is to avoid the generic use of he when referring to something relevant to males and females. Instead, you can informally use a gender-neutral pronoun like they or their or you can use his or her.Understanding Culture and Society
When giving a series of examples, you can alternate usage of masculine and feminine pronouns, switching with each example. We have lasting gendered associations with certain occupations that have tended to be male or female dominated, which erase the presence of both genders. Other words reflect the general masculine bias present in English. The following word pairs show the gender-biased term followed by an unbiased term: Common language practices also tend to infantilize women but not men, when, for example, women are referred to as chicks, girls, or babes.
Since there is no linguistic equivalent that indicates the marital status of men before their name, using Ms. Age Language that includes age bias can be directed toward older or younger people. Descriptions of younger people often presume recklessness or inexperience, while those of older people presume frailty or disconnection.
Age bias can appear in language directed toward younger or older people. The negative stereotypes that have been associated with homosexuality, including deviance, mental illness, and criminal behavior, continue to influence our language use.
First, sexual orientation is the term preferred to sexual preference. You may also see affectional orientation included with sexual orientation because it acknowledges that GLB relationships, like heterosexual relationships, are about intimacy and closeness affection that is not just sexually based. Language regarding romantic relationships contains bias when heterosexuality is assumed. Keep in mind that individuals are not allowed to marry someone of the same gender in most states in the United States.
Given that many GLB people have faced and continue to face regular discrimination, they may be cautious about disclosing their identities. However, using gender neutral terminology like partner and avoiding other biased language mentioned previously may create a climate in which a GLB person feels comfortable disclosing his or her sexual orientation identity.
During the past decade, I have taught English in Taiwan and have observed a major difficulty in English instruction brought about by teachers and suffered by students. Western English teachers who teach in Taiwan bring along with them any or all of their teaching and learning experiences.
From this, they bring with them what they imagine to be appropriate teaching methodology. Pennycook continues by pointing out that student centered learning is unsuitable for Chinese students. The students may not know how to react to this different style of learning.
A case in point, when at the beginning of my teaching career in Taiwan, I found it very easy to teach English, but very difficult to get the students to interact with me while I was teaching. Teaching was very easy because the students were well behaved and very attentive. The difficulties surfaced when trying to get the students to interact with me, their teacher. At the time, I did not realize that in Taiwan, it was culturally unacceptable for students to interact with their teacher.
The Taiwanese students were trained to listen to what the teacher said, memorize it, and later regurgitate it during an exam. The classroom setting had to be changed to a much less formal setting to coax out student interaction. The language classes taught using this style proved to be most beneficial to the students with an overall increase in the grade point average. Because language is so closely entwined with culture, language teachers entering a different culture must respect their cultural values.
As Englebert describes: As Spence argues, success and failure in a Chinese cultural framework influences not just oneself but the whole family or group. Therefore, teachers must remember to respect the culture in which they are located. Language teachers must realize that their understanding of something is prone to interpretation. The meaning is bound in cultural context. One must not only explain the meaning of the language used, but the cultural context in which it is placed as well.
Often meanings are lost because of cultural boundaries which do not allow such ideas to persist. As Porter argues, misunderstandings between language educators often evolve because of such differing cultural roots, ideologies, and cultural boundaries which limit expression. Language teachers must remember that people from different cultures learn things in different ways. For example, in China memorization is the most pronounced way to study a language which is very unlike western ideologies where the onus is placed on free speech as a tool for utilizing and remembering vocabulary and grammar sequences Hui When a teacher introduces language teaching materials, such as books or handouts, they must understand that these will be viewed differently by students depending on their cultural views Maley For instance, westerners see books as only pages which contain facts that are open to interpretation.
This view is very dissimilar to Chinese students who think that books are the personification of all wisdom, knowledge and truth Maley One should not only compare, but contrast the cultural differences in language usage.
The Relationship Between Language & Culture and the Implications for Language Teaching | yogada.info
Visualizing and understanding the differences between the two will enable the student to correctly judge the appropriate uses and causation of language idiosyncrasies. For instance, I have found, during my teaching in Taiwan, that it is necessary to contrast the different language usages, especially grammatical and idiom use in their cultural contexts for the students to fully understand why certain things in English are said. Thank you, and you? This question was very difficult to answer, until I used an example based in Chinese culture to explain it to them.
One example of this usage: It was culturally and possibly morally significant to ask someone if they had eaten upon meeting. This showed care and consideration for those around you. Even now, people are more affluent but this piece of language remains constant and people still ask on meeting someone, if they have eaten.