Hip fracture - Wikipedia
With a broken bone, fat cells can enter the body's circulatory system and be grafting procedures and some types of leg-length correction operations. due to bleeding under the skin (petechial rash); impaired lung function;. Blood clots that form in the veins in your legs, arms, and groin can break loose A blood clot may have gone to your lungs if you suddenly have: If you think you are bleeding too much, call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a bronchoscopically defined entity We conducted a chart review analysis to examine the relationship between FES and DAH. Methods: to a left tibia and fibula fracture followed by four-compart-.
Prevention[ edit ] The majority of hip fractures are the result of a fall, particularly in the elderly. Therefore, identifying why the fall occurred, and implementing treatments or changes, is key to reducing the occurrence of hip fractures. Multiple contributing factors are often identified. A recent study has identified a high incidence of undiagnosed cervical spondylotic myelopathy CSM amongst patients with a hip fracture.
Hip protectorsfor example appear to decrease the number of hip fractures among the elderly. Surgical treatment outweighs the risks of nonsurgical treatment which requires extensive bedrest. Regardless, the surgery is a major stress, particularly in the elderly. Pain is also significant, and can also result in immobilization, so patients are encouraged to become mobile as soon as possible, often with the assistance of physical therapy.
Skeletal traction pending surgery is not supported by the evidence. Skeletal traction may be considered for long term treatment. Non-operative treatment is now limited to only the most medically unstable or demented patients, or those who are nonambulatory at baseline with minimal pain during transfers. This treatment can also be offered for displaced fractures after the fracture has been reduced. Fractures managed by closed reduction can possibly be treated by percutaneously inserted screws.
Fat embolism - Wikipedia
The advantage is that the patient can mobilize without having to wait for healing. In elderly patients who are medically well and still active, a total hip replacement may be indicated. Traction is contraindicated in femoral neck fractures due to it affecting blood flow to the head of the femur. Closed reduction may not be satisfactory and open reduction then becomes necessary. As it is only common in elderly, removal of the dynamic hip screw is usually not recommended to avoid unnecessary risk of second operation and the increased risk of re-fracture after implant removal.
The most common cause for hip fractures in the elderly is osteoporosis; if this is the case, treatment of the osteoporosis can well reduce the risk of further fracture.Fractures Part 1
Only young patients tend to consider having it removed; the implant may function as a stress riserincreasing the risk of a break if another accident occurs. Subtrochanteric fractures[ edit ] Subtrochanteric fractures may be treated with an intramedullary nail or a screw-plate construction and may require traction pre-operatively, though this practice is uncommon.
It is unclear if any specific type of nail results in different outcomes than any other type of nail. Treatment Femur Fractures In most cases, doctors prefer to repair the fracture surgically. Surgical repair usually requires a shorter hospital stay and creates less disability than other treatment methods, such as wearing a plaster cast that covers the entire leg and hip. To repair your fracture, the surgeon will join the segments of your broken femur using a special metal rod that is inserted into the bone's inner cavity.
This rod will stabilize and reinforce the fracture site, allowing the femur to heal quickly and firmly. Once healing is complete, the metal rod may be removed or left in place. After surgery, you will need to use crutches to avoid bearing weight on the leg, followed by a program of physical therapy.
The goal of physical therapy is to restore normal strength in your leg muscles and normal range of motion in your leg joints. The entire process of healing and rehabilitation usually takes months. Tibia Fractures Treatment depends on the severity and location of your tibia fracture. If you have an uncomplicated fracture that is not near your knee or ankle, the doctor may be able to treat your injury by immobilizing your leg in a cast.
More severe fractures usually have to be repaired surgically with a metal rod, wires, or plates and screws.
Fibula Fractures In general, a fibula fracture that occurs without a tibia fracture can be treated without hospitalization. Your doctor probably will tell you to rest the injured leg, apply ice to the injured area, and take a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAIDsuch as ibuprofen AdvilMotrin and othersto ease pain and relieve swelling.
If bearing weight on your injured leg is very painful or if the fracture is near the ankle, your doctor may apply a cast and recommend that you use crutches temporarily. If your fracture breaks the skin, you also will be given antibiotics intravenously into a vein to prevent infection.
If you have not had a tetanus shot within the past 10 years, a tetanus vaccination will be recommended. Once your fracture has healed enough, your doctor will prescribe a program of physical therapy to restore full strength and function in your injured leg. When To Call a Professional Seek emergency help if you have significant lasting pain and suspect you may have a leg fracture after a fall, a motor vehicle accident or other trauma involving the leg.
Prognosis The outlook for leg fractures varies, depending on the type of fracture and its severity: Femur fractures — Almost all femur fractures heal well, and most patients are able to return to their normal activities after about 6 months of treatment and rehabilitation.
Although uncommon, FES can result in serious complications such as severe lung problems and seizures. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that makes blood cells. Fat tissue is one part of bone marrow, and some bones have more fat in the marrow than others.
For example, in the body's long bones, such as those in the legs femur, tibia and fibulathe bone marrow is made up mainly of fat cells. Smaller bones have much less fat tissue. With a broken bone, fat cells can enter the body's circulatory system and be carried by the bloodstream throughout the body. This is called fat embolism. Fat embolism is quite common after major trauma in which one or more large bones are broken. But the body is usually able to clear the fat from circulation without any significant damage.