--Indianapolis (testing): A Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Explore Indiana Historical Society's board "Historic Indiana Photos" on Wes Montgomery - Indianapolis-born jazz artist who became one of the . meet at Monument Circle Home Again, Indianapolis Indiana, Birthday Bash .. (Jim Clark's) Lotus 33 - Climax FWMV Belgian Grand Prix, Circuit de Spa- Francorchamps. See more ideas about Antique cars, Automotive art and Car drawings. Ferrari F1, Car Drawings, F1 Drivers, Car Painting, Indy Cars, Automotive Art “Pedro Rodríguez & Leo Kinnunen (Porsche Km de Spa-Francorchamps .. For the last 30 years, I have been hanging in swap meet and I always saw. Resolved: To charge a committee made up of Mr. Beyschlag, Despa, Ott and Dr. Resolved: To hold the next meeting at precisely a.m. Sunday, April .. The Society shall be called "Freethinkers Society of Indianapolis, Indiana" . 8 o'clock meeting about the relation of religion, materialism, art and science.
The debate on luxury was continued. Vonnegut, Gramlig, Jose and Rappaport debated. It was determined that Messrs. Scheller hold a debate on Sunday, April 9th on "Vegetarianism. Scheller to attempt a debate on "Meat and Vegetable Diets. Rappaport, Goldhausen and Tschentscher, about initial steps for the centennial of the republic.
The debate between Messrs. Scheller, who was for mixed diet, and Cl. Vonnegut, who was for vegetable diet, later joined in by the two secretaries who tended to lean toward Dr.
Scheller's view, seemed to stimulate all sides. Berwig will speak on the theme: Kothe's proposal, was accepted as society member. General meeting in the Old Turnhalle Sunday, April 23, Only a moderate amount of people turned out due to unfavorable weather. Berwig held a lecture "Striving for truth," which induced a stimulating debate, in which the lecturer's interpretation of "truth" was challenged. Gramlich to give a lecture at the scheduled society meeting on Sunday, May 14, was accepted.
Lieber that he, as representative of the Freethinkers Society, would attend the scheduled Freethinkers Convention in Philadelphia at the end of June was accepted with appreciation.
Tschentscher General Meeting, Sunday, May 28, '76 in the Old Turnhalle The meeting scheduled for May 14 could not be held until today due to several circumstances.
Considering the beautiful spring weather, which would normally attract many interested people to the outside, the meeting was attended better than expected. After this, the president thanked members of the society who maintained and supported the society and announced that the regular meetings would be interrupted because of the expected hot weather. Then he read an invitation of the Milwaukee Freethinkers Society to participate in a life insurance program founded by said society, and it was proposed by Mr.
Vonnegut to inquire through businessmen about the dependability of his life insurance. Jose were named for this purpose. After this there was a discussion about the way the society would represent itself at the centennial and fourth of July parade in a dignified manner.
It seemed those present were not well prepared to discuss this point, and therefore the settlement of this matter was postponed until Thursday June 2nd 8 p. At the end of the meeting, someone suggested to hold a Freethinkers picnic. It should be held on June 18 and the arrangements are to be made by society officials. As new members were accepted: Cxerh in decorating the float and to give a concert in Baldus Garden on July 4, p.
Barnes withdrew his membership. Metzger presided and nominated the members Messrs. Tschentscher for the arrangement committee. Koehne also attended the conference. It should also be noted that the picnic planned for June 18 could not be held because of bad weather. Rappaport announced that the float of the Freethinkers Society was almost finished and the members decided to participate in the parade together with their spouses.
There was not much business to carry out and the people present helped to decorate the float with wreaths and garlands.
July 4, The parade of the Freethinkers Society on July 4 was a big success. A great many society members participated in the parade and in the evening a great number of people met in the Volksgarten. Rappaport Meeting on Sunday, July 16, Attendance was very good. Hermann Lieber reported on the discussions of the Freethinkers Conference in Philadelphia and read the resolutions and the platform.
An informal discussion about the latter occurred. Koehne's suggestion, it was approved to discuss the individual points of the platform starting on Sunday, July It was further resolved to express gratitude to Mr.
Lieber for representing the society in Philadelphia. Rappaport  General Meeting, Sunday, July 30, '76 The discussion of the platform from the Freethinkers conference in Philadelphia was stated. The first paragraph was unanimously agreed upon as being in compliance with our Freethinkers society.
The 2nd paragraph, however, which entitles both sexes to the same rights, was in dispute. There was a lively debate on this, and the Messrs. Lieber, Vonnegut and Koehne and the Mrs. Schulmeyer were for, and the Messrs. Rappaport, Jose and Tschentscher against the same rights, at least in a political sense. Tschentscher General Meeting, Sunday, Aug.
The debate on women's rights was continued. The undersigned read a short essay on: Schulmeyer, a long treatise in which she sought to defend women. They founded their own Catholic parishes. Later, Irish leaders began to shape politics in the town. Seven Indianapolis mayors have had Irish ancestry. The late 19th century brought industrialization and a demand for labor. Social unrest in many southern or eastern European nations also brought a new wave of immigration. Italians, Slovenes, Greeks, and other groups sought jobs and better lives in neighborhoods like Haughville and Fountain Square.
Indianapolis was still primarily Anglo American in the s, however, the influx of Eastern and Southern Europeans, Germans, and African Americans had changed the town. As the economic means of these groups increased, the need to stay in the neighborhoods where they had originally settled became obsolete. German was banned from public schools, and inscriptions in the language were erased or covered.
Successful Irish, Italian, German Jewish, and German families moved away from traditional areas to the suburbs as their labors brought wealth and assimilation. While black congregations stayed put, the families often found newer homes outside of the Indiana Avenue vicinity. Oppression increased in the s. Now rich with membership funds and bribes, he and his cohorts held sway in the Statehouse and City Hall. Stephenson was arrested and convicted of second degree murder in after an incident with a Statehouse clerk.
His implication of other Klan leaders ended their reign, but not the discrimination.
He made a significant speech at a park at 17th and Broadway, urging a peaceful response. Indiana is now experiencing its largest cultural change since the late 19th century, as thousands of people from Mexico or Central and South America seek the opportunity and stability afforded by living in the Midwest. A Mexican consulate opened in downtown Indianapolis in More than 34, persons of Hispanic descent lived in the city by This latest chapter in the ethnic heritage of Indianapolis is still in the making.
Legislators thought establishing the capital at a central location with good access to all parts of the state would serve both local and national ambitions. Beyond just getting there from here, transportation affected the way Indianapolis developed, industrialized, and even the way the city planned parks. In the beginning, planners hoped that a strong combination of the National Road, Michigan Road, river travel, and canal trade would bolster the economy. George Washington had suggested construction of a road from the Northwest Territory to the eastern United States.
Thomas Jefferson signed the legislation for the National Road inand construction began in Cumberland, Maryland, in From toworkers completed the mile route across Indiana. Indiana had federal backing to hire contractors for the Michigan Road, which slashed diagonally across Indiana.
Eventually, toll companies took over the Michigan Road. A tollhouse and the Aston Inn remain on Michigan Road from this early era. With all their baggage and wagons, pioneer families could hope to make 5 to 10 miles a day on these early roads.
New Augustaan intact railroad village, is a good example of changing fortunes due to changing transportation routes. InUnion Station was built to handle all the rail lines coming into Indianapolis. The area along South Meridian and Illinois Streets became home to businesses that sold rail-shipped goods.
One locomotive from the steam rail era is on display near Indianapolis, Nickel Plate No. Thispound locomotive could haul a full load of coal and cars at about 30 to 40 mph, depending on load, grade, and line conditions. InIndiana entered the auto age when Elwood Haynes of Kokomo rumbled down a back road in his home-engineered gasoline-powered carriage.
Indianapolis carriage makers soon were fiddling with their light carriage designs, devising ways of adding internal combustion engines to them.
ByIndianapolis was a city of over , and already had 17 automobile plants or auto parts manufacturers making it fourth in the nation in auto production. Cole, Stutz, Duesenberg, and Marmon were brands known internationally.
Cole cars of the s, for example, were better known for their excellent fit and finish than for their speed and affordability. A typical Cole sedan had a top speed of about 60 mph and cost about 4 thousand dollars, the average price of a decent single family house in Indianapolis at the time. Auto magnate Carl Fisher and a group of fellow auto industrialists built the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Testing would be by way of grueling competition. Ray Harroun, driving a locally made Marmon Wasp, won the first race with a breakneck average speed of Along with the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Allison and Fisher planned the industrial suburb of Speedwayjust south of the track.
Many residents of Speedway worked in the auto industries there, including Fisher's Prest-O-Lite auto headlight and battery plant.
Allison was also interested in aircraft engines, and workers at his Allison Experimental Company produced the Liberty engine during World War I. In the s and 30s, plant engineers invented the V engine, which, with improvements, powered the Tomahawk, Lightening, and Air Cobra fighters during World War II.
The P Tomahawk with its Indianapolis-made piston engine could cruise at about mph, approximately the speed current Indy Cars reach on the front stretch at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway! The Allison firm continued to make history with new jet engines in the late s and s. Allison merged with Rolls Royce inbut the tradition continues. The need to accommodate the auto helped shape the built environment in Indianapolis. Indianapolis auto entrepreneurs popularized the suburban Cold Springs Road area, overlooking White River, and built impressive estates there.
The Test Building is another unique response to the auto age, with its built-in parking garage. Making room for the auto age even extended to park planning in Indianapolis. Inin his plan for the Indianapolis Park and Boulevard System, George Edward Kessler called for sweeping auto pleasure drives following the meandering creeks of Central Indiana to connect all parts of Indianapolis.
Driving the park and boulevard system is an excellent and leisurely way to experience Indianapolis, but please pay attention to the posted speed limits. Visitors today can experience amenities ranging from two golf courses to bicycle routes, swimming, and simply driving the parkways.
When Alexander Ralston mapped out the Mile Square plat of Indianapolis inhe did not include parks. Military Park was originally a militia training grounds, and shortly after the Civil War, businessman George Merritt installed a badge-shaped walk and fountains for it. University Park was the home of the Marion County Seminary, and it served as such for years before becoming a city park in the s.
Indianapolis grew rapidly in the late 19th century, and the city needed more parks for its citizens. Volunteer park efforts were inadequate.
City consultations with landscape architect Joseph Earnshaw in led to consideration of a broader system of parks. Inthe City Council created a Park Commission. Shortly thereafter, the commission brought John C. Olmsted on board to create a full plan. Legal challenges to the Olmsted plan ended its viability within a few years, though city parks director J. Little funding was available for other parks, and the city still had no overall plan.
Most residents wanted parks in their own areas, not just on one side of town. Concerns about where parks were needed, legal disputes, and escalating land values threatened the whole parks movement.
George Edward Kessler stepped into this politically charged situation in Kessler was one of the preeminent landscape architects in the United States. Born in in Bad Frankenhausen, Germany, he came with his family to the United States in the mids.
The Kesslers lived in Dallas, Texas, when George was a child. InGeorge returned to Germany and studied forestry, botany, and landscape design at the Grand Ducal Gardens in Weimar, and civil engineering at the University of Jena.
He came back and established his office in St. Louis quickly building an excellent reputation. His impressive plans for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, and his other city park plans — for Cincinnati and Kansas City among others — were probably foremost in the minds of Indianapolis leaders when they selected him to develop a plan for the park system.
His genius did not lie in simply designing a sound plan from an engineering and aesthetic point of view, but in implementing the plan in a way that quelled opposition and united the city. It was adopted, and along with a new parks law, withstood legal challenges. The plan combines parks with green spaces and boulevards in a network of transportation and recreation corridors that help guide urban growth, preserve the environment, protect water from pollution, and provide flood control.
Kessler gave each of the major parks its own character. For Garfield Parkhe designed formal sunken gardens with spray fountains. Ellenberger Park would maintain its old tree stands and natural paths. In the heart of the city, Kessler redesigned University Park, with formal paths and a recommendation for a central fountain. The meandering routes of his parkways would create foils to the relentless grid of subdivisions. The very waterways which Earnshaw, Power, Olmsted, Kessler, and Lawrence Sheridan, who followed Kessler, hoped to celebrate were the only significant natural barrier to development.
Power and Kessler especially disliked the 19th century metal truss bridges crossing Fall Creek and White River and began their replacement with artistic stone and concrete arch spans. Kessler guided the Park Commission for six years until A good portion of the system had been surveyed and constructed by then. The city hired Kessler once again in the s. He was in town, supervising construction of a new belt road, when he died in The new belt road was named Kessler Boulevard in his honor.
Sheridan implemented the Kessler idea over several decades. InSheridan unveiled an expanded version of the Kessler Plan, one which created new parks and parkways in the farthest reaches of the county.
The parkway system took on new life as part of the Indy Greenways system in the s, a series of linked pedestrian and bicycle trails. City efforts to revitalize parks led to a landmark restoration of the sunken gardens at Garfield Park in the late s. The City of Indianapolis Parks Department officially recognized the importance of the park movement legacy in The Indiana Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, the State Historic Preservation Office, worked with consultants to prepare an page National Register of Historic Places nomination with complete mapping that summarized a century of park development.
Restoration and preservation of the system is ongoing and involves a dialogue between transportation engineers, park planners, trail enthusiasts, citizens, preservationists, and conservationists.
Two of these diagonal streets, Virginia Avenue and Massachusetts Avenuewere continued by later speculators and became outlying commercial areas with residential development in their corridors. Kentucky Avenue, running to the southwest, connected with major routes to southwestern Indiana. Indiana Avenue, running northwest, was home to the African American community.
Today, each of the surviving diagonal avenues retains its own character.
Freethinkers' Minutes, Part 1
The diagonal streets of Indianapolis became known for their odd, flatiron-shaped buildings, ethnic character, and vibrant satellite commercial strips. They gave, and continue to give, a unique identity to Indianapolis. Unfortunately, to later city planners more concerned with auto traffic than urban character, the diagonal streets meant headaches and traffic jams.
The magnificent Lincoln Hotel was an early victim in the s, when a new bank plaza and hotel resulted in the loss of part of Kentucky Avenue. The revolving restaurant at the top offers great views.
A portion of Indiana Avenue has been gone since the s when the American United Life tower was constructed. In the early and mid 20th century, Indiana Avenue was the heart of the African American community.
Visitors would have found the streets teeming with life and, at night, the air laced with jazz music drifting through nightclub doors. As society gradually changed and the black community won hard fought opportunities to prosper elsewhere, the avenue declined. The surviving portions of Indiana Avenue have made a dramatic resurgence in recent decades.
Several historic buildings anchor Indiana Avenue. Walker Building with its Walker Theatre, itself a flatiron, is at Indiana Avenue right on the diagonal. Virginia Avenueby contrast, built upon its transportation roots. This avenue was the terminus of several important roads connecting the city to southeastern Indiana. By the s, Virginia Avenue and Fountain Square were satellite commercial areas to downtown Indianapolis.
Virginia Avenue and the square were also entertainment districts. On a typical s or s Saturday night here, a visitor would find couples hurrying to catch a movie at one of many theaters, eating at a diner, or bowling. Many folks would just be strolling, enjoying the flashing theater marquees and the old fountain at the intersection of Virginia, Shelby, and Prospect.
Massachusetts Avenue was also a transportation corridor where several trolley lines converged on their way in and out of downtown. Mass Ave was a bustling place during the early to midth century. Groceries, laundries, and offices served the surrounding neighborhoods. Clothing stores drew shoppers from the city as a whole. Institutions gave Massachusetts Avenue a distinct character. The Germans built their largest clubhouse in town, Das Deutsche Haushere in the s. The Murat Shriners constructed an exotic Middle Eastern-inspired fraternal lodge complex on Mass Ave in the early s.
These institutions still survive. Today, the Massachusetts Avenue Historic District ; Chatham—Arch Historic Districtwhich includes part of Mass Ave; and the Virginia Avenue Historic District are home to generations-old businesses, art and antique shops, diners, new independent restaurants, night clubs, coffee shops, and more.
Going in Circles Monument Circle is the heart of Indianapolis. The Soldiers and Sailors Monument is dramatic, with its overwhelming scale and lavish sculpture, and the buildings lining the circle provide a rich backdrop with their own sense of place and beauty.
Until the s, many lots on the circle were owned by churches. Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Methodists, and Episcopalians all built simple frame chapels facing the circle. Only the Episcopal church remains today; Christ Church Cathedral is a stone Gothic Revival sanctuary dating from the s. Gradually, the congregations found their members living farther and farther away, with office and commercial uses crowding out their church buildings.
Merchants bought up the church sites. Contractors began construction on the State Soldiers and Sailors Monument in the s, and in time, its limestone obelisk rose above its surroundings. The completion of the monument in made the circle a civic space. Architects of several generations have had to contend with fitting their design concepts into a concave footprint to match the radius of the circle.
Early architects chose to ignore the radius and placed conventional buildings at a tangent to the circle. Indiana limestone became the most popular building material for the new generation of buildings lining Monument Circle. The Guaranty and Test Buildings, both from the s, occupy portions of the southwestern quadrant. The Test Building also features sculptural panels. Other buildings on Monument Circle have public art: However impressive, the technological innovations of s architecture raised concerns.
Inlocal architect William Earl Russ and city leaders proposed, and the city implemented, local legislation that limited heights to 10 stories and called for elevation setbacks to preserve the prominence of the monument. George Edward Kessler had made the initial suggestion to the city during his years as a consulting park planner. Circle Towerwith its Deco stair-step roofline, is the most obvious example of how the legislation shaped architecture on the circle.
The Emmis Building, completed in the s, also reflects the setback design concept. Attempts to beautify Monument Circle took shape after the war years in the late s. Architect Edward Pierre was a leading home, business, and civic designer in Indianapolis in the s and 30s. Pierre, then near retirement, made suggestions about revitalizing the circle. Among others, he recommended that Monument Circle and the Monument itself be strung with holiday lights.
Thanks to his idea, visitors lucky enough to be in downtown Indianapolis during the holidays will experience the magical effect of the lighting. The City of Indianapolis hoped to improve the image of the circle in the s. Workers laid paving bricks on Monument Circle and Market Street and installed brick walks.
Names of donors to the project were inscribed on the sidewalk bricks.