Cardinal Wolsey and Government - History Learning Site
Cardinal Wolsey was Henry VIII's chief minister for fifteen years. Wales so that both benefited came to nothing under Wolsey and was left to Thomas Cromwell. It would be hard to think of two more sharply contrasted portraits than Wolsey's and Cromwell's. Wolsey appears all in scarlet; Cromwell, all in black. And the. Wolsey and Cromwell shared more than their humble birth: both were Drawing inspiration from Anne's flirtatious relationship with her male.
The men were executed on 17 May and, on the same day, Cranmer declared Henry's marriage to Anne invalid, a ruling that illegitimised their daughter, Princess Elizabeth. Two days later, Anne herself was executed. On 30 May, the King married Jane Seymour.
On 8 June, a new Parliament passed the second Act of Succession, securing the rights of Queen Jane's heirs to the throne. On 8 Julyhe was raised to the peerage as Baron Cromwell of Wimbledon. This resulted in the dispersal and destruction of many books deemed 'popish' and 'superstitious'. This has been described as 'easily the greatest single disaster in English literary history'.
Oxford University was left without a library collection until Sir Thomas Bodley's donation in Bishop Edward Foxe tabled proposals in Convocation, with strong backing from Cromwell and Cranmer, which the King later endorsed as the Ten Articles and which were printed in August Cromwell circulated injunctions for their enforcement that went beyond the Articles themselves, provoking opposition in September and October in Lincolnshire and then throughout the six northern counties.
These widespread popular and clerical uprisings found support among the gentry and even the nobility; they were collectively known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. One of the leaders of the rebellion was Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy of Darcywho gave Cromwell the prophetic warning just prior to his execution "others that have been in such favour with kings as you now enjoy have come to the same fate you bring me to".Tracy Borman introduces THOMAS CROMWELL - Hodder & Stoughton
In FebruaryCromwell convened a vicegerential synod of bishops and doctors. The synod was co-ordinated by Cranmer and Foxe, and they prepared a draft document by July: By October, it was in circulation, although the King had not yet given it his full assent.
Thomas Wolsey - Wikipedia
However, Cromwell's success in Church politics was offset by the fact that his political influence had been weakened by the emergence of a Privy Councila body of nobles and office-holders that first came together to suppress the Pilgrimage of Grace. The King confirmed his support of Cromwell by appointing him to the Order of the Garter on 5 Augustbut Cromwell was nonetheless forced to accept the existence of an executive body dominated by his conservative opponents. Statues, rood screensand images were attacked, culminating in September with the dismantling of the shrine of St.
Thomas Becket at Canterbury. Early in September, Cromwell also completed a new set of vicegerential injunctions declaring open war on "pilgrimages, feigned relics or images, or any such superstitions" and commanding that "one book of the whole Bible in English" be set up in every church.
Moreover, following the "voluntary" surrender of the remaining smaller monasteries during the previous year, the larger monasteries were now also "invited" to surrender throughouta process legitimised in the session of Parliament and completed in the following year.
Cromwell took the initiative against his enemies. All were executed in the following months. Cromwell persuaded the King of France to release the unfinished books so that printing could continue in England.
The first edition was finally available in April The publication of the Great Bible was one of Cromwell's principal achievements, the first authoritative version in English. A Parliamentary committee was established to examine doctrine, and the Duke of Norfolk presented six questions on 16 May for the House to consider, which were duly passed as the Act of Six Articles shortly before the session ended on 28 June.
The Six Articles reaffirmed a traditional view of the Mass, the Sacraments, and the priesthood. In early Octoberthe King finally accepted Cromwell's suggestion that he should marry Anne of Clevesthe sister of Duke Wilhelm of Clevespartly on the basis of a portrait which Hans Holbein had painted of her. On 27 December, Anne of Cleves arrived at Dover.
Thomas Cromwell - Wikipedia
On New Year's Daythe King met her at Rochester and was immediately repelled by her physically: Henry said that he found it impossible to enjoy conjugal relations with a woman whom he found so unattractive. The King's anger at being forced to marry Anne of Cleves was the opportunity Cromwell's conservative opponents, most notably the Duke of Norfolk, needed to topple him.
However, the gradual slide towards Protestantism at home and the King's ill-starred marriage to Anne of Cleveswhich Cromwell engineered in Januaryproved costly. Therefore, while Wolsey many very many enemies for other reasons, on this one he found that his approach was supported by the bulk of the nobility. Wolsey had no great love for Parliament. He viewed the House as a place where men set out to criticise him, and in effect, Henry himself.
This happened in — but it only served to deepen his dislike of Parliament as it was capable of solving something that he could not. While Wolsey was good at developing his own revenue, he did not have the legal authority of Parliament to raise taxes.
However, civil law was seen as being more modern and was more favoured in Southern Europe. There were many differences between the two but the fundamental one was the common law used precedents as a basis for legal decisions while civil law used natural justice. Common law did force judges to give a reason for their decisions based on past legal cases but it also led to unjust verdicts when no-one questioned the validity of past verdicts. Civil law allowed a judge to come to a verdict based on what he thought was just and fair regardless of cases held years in the past.
Wolsey did favour civil law above common law as he believed that justice was better served by civil law. On the dreadful day when York Place was taken apart, Cavendish travelled upriver with his master as he fled to his palace at Esher. Esher was a gentleman servant's nightmare: He had never before seen Cromwell pray or cry - and he never saw him do either again. A moment, and the lawyer pulled himself together; he was going to London, he said grimly, "to make or mar".
The cardinal's people began fighting a rearguard action, encouraged by the king's double-dealing. Emotionally dependent on Wolsey, torn between minister and wife-to-be, Henry blew hot and cold, sending loving messages but standing by while bills were brought into parliament accusing the cardinal of a long list of serious crimes. Was Cavendish superb in a crisis?
How did Wolsey and Cromwell compare as effective servants of the English Crown?
We know, at least, that his writing was. Holding his readers in suspense, he diverts us with an anecdote: Every day he managed to stay near the court was a triumph; at any moment the king might change his mind, recall him. The Duke of Norfolk, boiling with panic, threatened Cromwell: The young earl of Northumberland arrived at the cardinal's lodging a day's ride from York: I arrest you of high treason.
Wolsey told him, "Look at my face - I am not afraid of any man alive. Then he fell ill. Cavendish served the cardinal his last meal this side of heaven, a dish of baked pears.
He was with him at Leicester Abbey, at his agonising death. Natural causes or poison?
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Cavendish saw him laid to rest in a coffin of plain boards. He had washed his body for burial; beneath his "very fine linen Holland cloth", this most vain, flamboyant and worldly of men was wearing a hair shirt.
Ahead of Cavendish was a sticky interview with the king, who wanted to know what the cardinal had said in his last moments. He kept Cavendish on his knees for an hour while he questioned him. Whatever the cardinal's parting shot, Cavendish keeps it even from the reader. His enemies said the cardinal had given him a magic jewel which gave him power over Henry, but more likely Wolsey had given him a list of hints for dealing with a petulant, volatile and increasingly costly monarch.
Henry soon regretted the hounding to death of his cardinal; he wanted him back, just as years later, after executing Cromwell, he wanted him back, too. The "gorgeous young lady" had her head severed, wives came and went, some violently, Henry died swollen and monstrous and perhaps a little mad. Meanwhile George lived quietly in the country.