Urbanization in China - Wikipedia
Chinese Indonesians or (in Indonesia) simply Tionghoa are Indonesians descended from Some, however, stayed in the region as economic migrants. .. who were and were not ethnic Chinese, secured relationships with Suharto's family exist throughout Indonesia with marked differences between urban and rural. Rural-Urban Migration in China and Indonesia project (+) China and Indonesia and the use of these data to answer questions with relation to migration's. The Great Migration: Rural-Urban Migration in China and Indonesia. Edited by Xin Meng and Chris Manning, with Li Shi and Tadjuddin Noer Effendi.
For example, during the Songthe northern capital Kaifeng of the Northern Song and southern capital Hangzhou of the Southern Song had 1.
Modern history[ edit ] Originally a collection of fishing villages, Shenzhen rapidly grew to be one of the largest cities in China. Apartment buildings in Guangzhou. Urban population experienced a 'great jump' in during the " Great Leap Forward " in conjunction with the massive industrialization effort. During the Cultural Revolution years ofurban population growth dropped as a result of ' rustication '. From toit is estimated that almost 18 million urban youth moved to the countryside.
The inflow of foreign direct investment created massive employment opportunities, which fostered urban population growth. In the s, urban population growth started to slow. This reflected a slower increase in employment growth following the restructuring of the state-owned enterprises SOE. The majority of China's people live in the eastern segment of the country, the traditional China proper.
Most are peasants living, as did their forebears, in the low-lying hills and central plains that stretch from the highlands eastward and southward to the sea. Agriculture predominates in this vast area, generally favored by a temperate or subtropical climate.
The meticulously tilled fields are evidence in part of the government's continuing concern over farm output and the food supply. Although migration to urban areas has been restricted since the late s, as of the end of about 33 percent of the population was urban.
An urban and industrial corridor formed a broad arc stretching from Harbin in the northeast through the Beijing area and south to China's largest city, the industrial metropolitan complex of Shanghai. The uneven pattern of internal development and settlement, so strongly weighted toward the eastern part of the country, doubtless will change relatively little even with developing interest in exploiting the mineral-rich and agriculturally productive portions of the vast northwest and southwest regions.
The adverse terrain and climate of most of those regions have historically discouraged dense population. In China had a total of twenty-nine provincial-level administrative units directly under the central government in Beijing.
In addition to the twenty-one provinces shengthere were five autonomous regions zizhiqu for minority nationalities, and three special municipalities shi --the three largest cities, ShanghaiBeijingand Tianjin. The establishment of Hainan Island as a provincial-level unit separate from Guangdong Province was scheduled in A change in provincial-level administrative boundaries in the northeast region restored Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to its original size it had been reduced by a third in at the expense of HeilongjiangJilinand Liaoning provinces.
Urbanization in China
Urban areas were further subdivided into lower-level administrative units beginning with municipalities and extending down to the neighborhood level. The pace of urbanization in China from to was relatively slow because of both rapid growth of the rural population and tight restrictions on rural-urban migration for most of that period.
According to the and censuses, the urban population as a percentage of total population increased from From tohowever, the urban population increased dramatically to 37 percent of the total population.
This large jump resulted from a combination of factors. One was the migration of large numbers of surplus agricultural workers, displaced by the agricultural responsibility systemfrom rural to urban areas.
Seeking quality scientific professions, they entered China with high hopes for their future and that of the mainland. As many as 80 percent of the original students who entered the mainland eventually became refugees in Hong Kong. These regulations culminated in the enactment of Presidential Regulation 10 in Novemberbanning retail services by non-indigenous persons in rural areas. Ethnic Chinese, Araband Dutch businessmen were specifically targeted during its enforcement to provide a more favorable market for indigenous businesses.
Javanese writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer later criticized the policies in his book Hoakiau di Indonesia. An integrationist movement, led by the Chinese-Indonesian organisation Baperki Badan Permusjawaratan Kewarganegaraan Indonesiabegan to gather interest inincluding that of President Sukarno. However, a series of attacks on ethnic Chinese communities in West Java in May proved it to be short-lived, despite the government's condemnation of the violence. Legislation on Chinese Indonesians When the New Order government of General Suharto came into power in —, it introduced a political system based only on the Pancasila five principles ideology.
To prevent the ideological battles that occurred during Sukarno's presidency from resurfacing, Suharto's "Pancasila democracy" sought a depoliticized system in which discussions of forming a cohesive ethnic Chinese identity were no longer allowed.
This process was done through highlighting the differences between the ethnic Chinese and the indigenous pribumirather than seeking similarities. Expressions of Chinese culture through language, religion, and traditional festivals were banned and the ethnic Chinese were pressured to adopt Indonesian-sounding names.
Patron—client relationships, mainly through the exchange of money for security, became an accepted norm among the ethnic Chinese as they maintained a social contract through which they could claim a sense of belonging in the country. A minority of the economic elite of Indonesian society, both those who were and were not ethnic Chinese, secured relationships with Suharto's family members and members of the military for protection, while small business owners relied on local law enforcement officials.
Indonesia's Search for Stability, an interviewee stated that, "to most Indonesians, the word 'Chinese' is synonymous with corruption". They were politically weak and often faced social harassment. President Suharto gathered the most powerful businessmen—mostly Chinese Indonesians—in a nationally televised meeting at his private ranch, calling on them to contribute 25 percent of their shares to cooperatives.
Commentators described the spectacle as "good theatre", as it only served to reinforce resentment and suspicion of the ethnic Chinese among the indigenous population.
Property and businesses owned by Chinese Indonesians were targeted by mobs, and over women were sexually assaulted ;  this aspect of the riots, though generally accepted as true,  has been denied by several Indonesian groups. In Jakarta and Surakarta over 1, people—both Chinese and non-Chinese—died inside shopping malls.
Yogyakarta In the public practice of Chinese culture, such as fashion and the barongsaiwas permitted, and in Chinese New Year was declared a national holiday.
RUMIC - Rural-Urban Migration in China - ADA
Suharto unexpectedly resigned on 21 Mayone week after he returned from a Group of 15 meeting in Cairowhich took place during the riots. Habibie began a campaign to rebuild the confidence of Chinese Indonesians who had fled the country, particularly businessmen. Along with one of his envoys James Riadyson of financial magnate Mochtar RiadyHabibie appealed to Chinese Indonesians seeking refuge throughout East Asia, Australia, and North America to return and promised security from various government ministries as well as other political figures, such as Abdurrahman Wahid and Amien Rais.
Despite Habibie's efforts he was met with skepticism because of remarks he made, as Vice President and as President, which suggested that the message was insincere. Others, including economist Kwik Kian Giesaw the government's efforts as perpetuating the myth of Chinese economic domination rather than affirming the ethnic Chinese identity. The first abolished the use of the terms " pribumi " and "non-pribumi" in official government documents and business. The second abolished the ban on the study of Mandarin Chinese [c] and reaffirmed a instruction that abolished the use of the SBKRI to identify citizens of Chinese descent.
Habibie established a task force to investigate the May violence, although his government later dismissed its findings. Two years later President Megawati Sukarnoputri declared that the Chinese New Year Imlek would be marked as a national holiday from The law further stipulates that children of foreigners born in Indonesia are eligible to apply for Indonesian citizenship.
Since then, numbers of Chinese Indonesians began to take part in the nation's politics, government and administrative sector. However, discrimination and prejudice have continued and risen.
On 15 Marchfor instance, Indonesian Army General Surya Prabowo commented that the incumbent governor of Jakarta, Basuki Tjahaja Purnamashould "know his place lest the Indonesian Chinese face the consequences of his action". This controversial comment was considered to hearken back to previous violence against the Indonesian Chinese. Chinese emigration Chinese immigrants to the Indonesian archipelago almost entirely originated from ethnic Han groups of what are now the Fujian and Guangdong provinces in southern China, areas known for their regional diversity.
Their maritime—mercantile culture comes from their trade occupations whilst in Indonesia. Descendants of Hokkiens are the dominant group in eastern Indonesia, Central and East Java and the western coast of Sumatra.
Teochewssouthern neighbors of the Hokkien, are found throughout the eastern coast of Sumatra, in the Riau Archipelagoand in western Borneo.
They were preferred as plantation laborers in Sumatra but have become traders in regions where the Hokkien are not well represented. Although they initially populated the mining centers of western Borneo and Bangka IslandHakkas became attracted to the rapid growth of Batavia and West Java in the late 19th century. Their migration in the 19th century was largely directed toward the tin mines of Bangka, off the east coast of Sumatra.
Notable traditionally as skilled artisans, the Cantonese benefited from close contact with Europeans in Guangdong and Hong Kong by learning about machinery and industrial success. They migrated to Java about the same time as the Hakka but for different reasons. In Indonesia's cities, they became artisans, machine workers, and owners of small businesses such as restaurants and hotel-keeping services. The Cantonese are evenly dispersed throughout the archipelago and number far less than the Hokkien or the Hakka.
Consequently, their roles are of secondary importance in the Chinese communities.