Caesar and Pompey - Livius
In the era just prior to the time of Julius Caesar the Roman Republic was Jugurtha was a Berber leader that had a turbulent relationship with Rome. Army under the command of Marius arrived in Numidia, Sulla carried out a daring plot. . BCE: Caesar worked with Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey) to undue the. Gaius Julius Caesar known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, . seize control of the republic; several senators accused Caesar of involvement in the plot. . Caesar continued his relationship with Cleopatra throughout his last. The Julius Caesar characters covered include: Brutus, Julius Caesar, Antony, in cheering Caesar, when once they cheered for Caesar's enemy Pompey.
Thus, on the advice of his councillors, Pompey decided to engineer a decisive battle. With a loss of 1, veteran legionaries Caesar was forced to retreat southwards. Near PharsalusCaesar pitched a strategic bivouac. Pompey attacked, but, despite his much larger army, he was conclusively defeated by Caesar's troops. A major reason for Pompey's defeat was a miscommunication among front cavalry horsemen. Egyptian dynastic struggle[ edit ] Main article: Caesar pursued the Pompeian army to Alexandriawhere he camped and became involved with the Alexandrine civil war between Ptolemy and his sister, wife, and co-regent, Cleopatra VII.
Perhaps as a result of Ptolemy's role in Pompey's murder, Caesar sided with Cleopatra; he is reported to have wept at the sight of Pompey's head, which was offered to him by Ptolemy's chamberlain Pothinus as a gift. In any event, Caesar was besieged at Alexandria and after Mithridates relieved the city, Caesar defeated Ptolemy's army and installed Cleopatra as ruler, with whom he fathered his only known biological son, Ptolemy XV Caesarbetter known as "Caesarion". Caesar and Cleopatra never married, due to Roman law that prohibited a marriage with a non-Roman citizen.
War against Pharnaces[ edit ] Main article: He had also taken the city of Amisus, which was a Roman ally, made all the boys eunuchsand sold the inhabitants to slave traders. After this show of strength, Pharnaces drew back to pacify his new conquests. Nevertheless, the extremely rapid approach of Caesar in person forced Pharnaces to turn his attention back to the Romans.
At first, recognizing the threat, he made offers of submission, with the sole object of gaining time until Caesar's attention fell elsewhere, to no avail; Caesar quickly routed Pharnaces at the Battle of Zela modern Zile in Turkey with just a small detachment of cavalry. Caesar's victory was so swift and complete that, in a letter to a friend in Rome, he famously said of the short war, " Veni, vidi, vici " "I came, I saw, I conquered".
Indeed, for his Pontic triumph, that may well have been the label displayed above the spoils. Pharnaces himself fled quickly back to the Bosporus, where he managed to assemble a small force of Scythian and Sarmatian troops, with which he was able to gain control of a few cities; however, a former governor of his, Asandar, attacked his forces and killed him.
The historian Appian states that Pharnaces died in battle; Cassius Dio says Pharnaces was captured and then killed. Later campaign in Africa and the war on Cato[ edit ] Further information: The legions were waiting for their discharges and the bonus pay Caesar had promised them before the battle of Pharsalus. As Caesar lingered in Egypt, the situation quickly deteriorated. Antony lost control of the troops and they began looting estates south of the capital.
Several delegations of diplomats were dispatched to try to quell the mutiny. Nothing worked and the mutineers continued to call for their discharges and back pay. Plutarch wrote that Pompey "had determined to restore the authority of the tribunate, which Sulla had overthrown, and to court the favour of the many" and commented that, "There was nothing on which the Roman people had more frantically set their affections, or for which they had a greater yearning, than to behold that office again.
In 'The Life of Crassus', Plutarch did not mention this repeal and, as mentioned above, he only wrote that Pompey and Crassus disagreed on everything and that as a result their consulship did not achieve anything. Yet, the restoration of tribunician powers was a highly significant measure and a turning point in the politics of the late Republic. This measure must have been opposed by the aristocracy and it would have been unlikely that it would have been passed if the two consuls had opposed each other.
Crassus does not feature much in the writings of the ancient sources. Unfortunately, the books of Livy, otherwise the most detailed of the sources, which cover this period have been lost. However, the Periochae, a short summary of Livy's work, records that "Marcus Crassus and Gnaeus Pompey were made consuls Campaign against the pirates[ edit ] A denarius of Pompey minted BC Piracy in the Mediterranean became a large-scale problem. A large network of pirates coordinated operations over wide areas with large fleets.
According to Cassius Dio, many years of war contributed to this. Many war fugitives joined them. Pirates were more difficult to catch or break up than bandits. The pirates pillaged coastal fields and towns. Rome was affected through shortages of imports and in the supply of corn, but the Romans did not pay proper attention to the problem. Cassius Dio wrote that these operations caused greater distress for Rome's allies. It was thought that a war against the pirates would be big and expensive and that it was impossible to attack all the pirates at once or to drive them back everywhere.
As not much was done against them, some towns were turned into pirate winter quarters and raids further inland were carried out.
Caesar's Civil War - Wikipedia
Many pirates settled on land in various places and relied on an informal network of mutual assistance. Towns in Italy were also attacked, including Ostiathe port of Rome: The pirates seized important Romans and demanded large ransoms.
This suggested that Mithridates fostered piracy as a means to weaken the Romans. Plutarch also thought that with the civil wars in Rome the Romans left the sea unguarded, which gave the pirates the confidence to lay waste islands and coastal cities in addition to attacking ships at sea. Piracy spread from its original base in Cilicia on the southern coast of modern Turkey.
The pirates also seized and ransomed some towns. Men of distinction also got involved in piracy. Plutarch claimed that pirates had more than 1, ships, that they captured towns and plundered temples in Greece and sacred and inviolable sanctuaries, listing fourteen of them.
He cited the praetors Sextilius and Bellinus and the daughter of Antonius among the important Romans who were seized for a ransom. The pirates also mocked their captives if they were Romans. Piracy spread over the whole of the Mediterranean, making it unnavigable and closed to trade.
This caused scarcity of provisions.
Caesar's Civil War
The destitute people who lost their livelihood became pirates. At first, they scoured the sea with a few small boats. As the war dragged on they became more numerous and used larger ships. When the war ended piracy continued. They sailed in squadrons.
- Julius Caesar
- Caesar and Pompey
They besieged towns or took them by storm and plundered them. They kidnapped rich people for a ransom. The ragged part of the Cilician coast became their main area for anchorage and encampment and the Crags of Cilicia the promontory of Coracesium became their main base.
It also attracted men from PamphyliaPontusCyprusSyria and elsewhere in the east. There were quickly tens of thousands of pirates and they dominated the whole Mediterranean. They defeated some Roman naval commanders, even off the coast of Sicily.
The sea became unsafe. This disrupted trade and some lands remained untilled, leading to food shortages and hunger in Rome. Eliminating such a scattered and large force from no particular country and of an intangible and lawless nature seemed a difficult task. Parts of Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory. Only a small part of that area became a Roman province. He won several naval victories off Cilicia and occupied the coasts of nearby Lycia and Pamphylia. He received his agnomen of Isaurus because he defeated the Isauri who lived in the core of the Taurus Mountainswhich bordered on Cilicia.
He incorporated Isauria into the province of Cilicia Pedias. However, much of Cilicia Paedia belonged to the kingdom of Armenia. Cilicia Trachea was still under the control of the pirates. He was to be empowered to pick fifteen lieutenants from the senate and assign specific areas to them. He was allowed to have ships, levy as many soldiers and oarsmen as he needed and collect as much money from the tax collectors and the public treasuries as he wished.
The use of treasury in the plural might suggest power to raise funds from treasures of the allied Mediterranean states as well. The senators nearly killed Pompey.
This outraged the people, who set upon the senators. They all ran away, except for the consul Gaius Piso, who was arrested. Gabinius had him freed. The optimates tried to persuade the other nine plebeian tribunes to oppose the bill. Only two, Trebellius and Roscius, agreed, but they were unable to do so. Pompey tried to appear as if he was forced to accept the command because of the jealousy that would be caused if he would lay claim to the post and the glory that came with it.
Cassius Dio commented that Pompey was "always in the habit of pretending as far as possible not to desire the things he really wished. Gabinius postponed the vote and introduced a motion to remove him from the tribunate, which passed. Roscius did not dare to speak, but suggested with a gesture that two commanders should be chosen. The people booed him loudly. The law was passed and the senate ratified it reluctantly. He gave details of the acrimony of the speeches against Pompey. One of the senators proposed that Pompey should be given a colleague.
Only Caesar supported the law and in Plutarch's view he did so "not because he cared in the least for Pompey, but because from the outset he sought to ingratiate himself with the people and win their support. Instead they shouted loudly. The assembly was dissolved. On the day of the vote Pompey withdrew to the countryside. The Lex Gabinia was passed. Pompey extracted further concessions and received ships,infantry, 5, cavalry and twenty-four lieutenants.
With the prospect of a campaign against the pirates the prices of provisions fell. Pompey divided the sea and the coast into thirteen districts, each with a commander with his own forces. The lieutenants were twenty-five. He listed them and their areas of command as follows: Tiberius Nero and Manlius Torquatus: Italy ; Plotius Varus and Terentius Varro: Pompey made a tour of the whole. He cleared the western Mediterranean in forty days, proceeded to Brundisium Brindisi and cleared the eastern Mediterranean in the same amount of time.
The pirates escaped to Cilicia. Pompey attacked Cilicia with his sixty best ships; after that he cleared the Tyrrhenian SeaCorsicaSardiniaSicily and the Libyan Sea in forty days with the help of his lieutenants. Meanwhile, the consul Piso sabotaged Pompey's equipment and discharged his crews.
Pompey went to Rome. The markets in Rome now were well stocked with provisions again and the people acclaimed Pompey. Piso was nearly stripped of his consulship, but Pompey prevented Aulus Gabinius from proposing a bill to this effect.
He set sail again and reached Athens. He then defeated the Cilician pirates off the promontory of Coracesium. He then besieged them and they surrendered together with the islands and towns they controlled. The latter were fortified and difficult to take by storm. Pompey seized many ships. He spared the lives of 20, pirates. He resettled some of them in the city of Soli, which had recently been devastated by Tigranes the Greatthe king of Armenia.
Most were resettled in Dyme in AchaeaGreece, which was underpopulated and had plenty of good land. Some pirates were received by the half-deserted cities of Cilicia. Pompey thought that they would abandon their old ways and be softened by a change of place, new customs and a gentler way of life.
However, he did not have to. His reputation and the magnitude of his preparations provoked panic and the pirates surrendered, hoping to be treated leniently because of this. They gave up large quantities of weapons, ships and ship building materials. Pompey destroyed the material, took away the ships and sent some of the captured pirates back to their countries. He recognised that they had undertaken piracy due to the poverty caused by the mentioned war and settled many of them in MallusAdana Epiphania or any other uninhabited or thinly peopled town in Cilicia.
He sent some to Dyme in Achaea. According to Appian, the war against the pirates lasted only a few days. Pompey captured 71 ships and ships were surrendered. He seized towns and fortresses and killed about 10, pirates in battles. The leniency with which he treated the pirates who surrendered was 'equally great' and won over many pirates who went over to his side.
Pompey 'took care of them' and gave them land which was empty or settled them in underpopulated towns so that they would not resort to crime due to poverty. Soli was among these cities.
It was on the Cilician coast and had been sacked by Tigranes the Great. Pompey renamed it Pompeiopolis. These provinces were on the northwestern and eastern south coast of Anatolia, respectively. After Sulla's death Caesar returned to Rome and entered the government as a prosecuting attorney.
His major case was against an associate of Sulla who was charged with corruption-extortion. The court, composed of senators sympathetic to the counter-revolution of Sulla, acquitted the defendant. Caesar decided to gain training in oratory. He chose to study with a famous teacher of rhetoric living on the island of Rhodes.
On the way the Rhodes Caesar was captured by pirates and held for ransom. He secured the ransom and was released. He then put together a naval force and captured the pirates. He had them executed in the Roman fashion, by crucifixion.
While Caesar was in the eastern Mediterranean he was made a member of the College of Pontifices, an honor but without much significance.
When he returned to Rome he was elected to be a tribune for the military. Caesar worked with Gnaeus Pompeius Pompey to undue the constitutional reform established by Sulla. Caesar was elected to be a quaestor government financial administrator. This was the first consequential political office.
Later in this period his wife died. Since later his aunt, who was the widow of Marius, died. Caesar marries a relative of his political ally Pompey. He serves his term as quaestor in Farther Spain, which was what is now Andalucia, Spain and Portugal. Ceasar was elected to the office of aedile. An aedile had responsibilities for the maintenance of temples and other public buildings.
An aedile also regulated the public games and markets. Originally it was an office which could only be held by plebians. At that time there were two aediles elected. Later positions for two more aediles were created that could be held by either patricians or plebians.
These aediles were called curule aediles. By holding public festivals as aediles aspiring politicians could become better known to the voting public. Politician who had been quaestors could use the office aedile to move up to the office of praetor. A praetor could be either a commander of an army or a jurist.
As a jurist a praetor was of the highest level, roughly a chief justice. The office had been created to relief a chief executive, a consul, of responsibility in judicial matters. Aspiring politicians who were soliciting support from the plebians, as Julius Caesar was, tended to promote lavish games and festivals.
Caesar did so on funds he personally borrowed. He seemed to be heavily in debt most of his adult life. Caesar was elected Pontifex Maximus, the chief priest of the religion of Rome. It was a prestigious office but did not involve much in the way of duties. In the same year the Catiline Conspiracy was uncovered. Catiline was an unsuccessful candidate from an old patrician family. He had promoted a program for the cancellation of debt to attract plebian support. When his rise to power through political office did not materialize he organized a conspiracy that involved the massacre of Senate members and elected consuls.
Cicero was tipped off that he was to be the first assassinated. In the Senate Cicero brought charges against Catiline. Catiline left Rome supposedly going into exile as a result of his ill treatment by Cicero and the Senate. Actually Cataline joined an army that was to be the instrument for taking over the government of Rome. Hard evidence was obtained in Rome against five conspirators and they were executed immediately without trial. Caesar objected to this abrogation of the right of that acused to trials and some acused Caesar of being part of the conspiracy.
This was deemed groundless.
Caesar elected praetor for the year. Caesar was still Pontifex Maximus. In the Roman religion there was a very sacred ceremony called Bona Dea that was held one a year typically in the house of the Pontifex Maximus. It was a ceremony in which no males could be in attendance.
As a prank, the Roman politician Plubius Clodius snuck into the ceremony disguised as a woman. When he was discovered there was a tremendous public outcry for this act of sacrilege. There was suspicion that somehow Caesar's wife, Pompeia, was to blame. Caesar divorced her, saying "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion. Caesar is appointed governor of Farther Spain Andalusia and Portugal.
Before he was allowed to leave Rome his debtors demanded that a wealthy friend of Caesar's, Marcus Licinius Crassus, guarantee a quarter of his debts. During his governorship a military expedition into the territory lying to northwest of Farther Spain resulted in so much loot that Caesar was able to pay off his debts. Caesar returned to Rome and ran for consul for the next year.
Caesar is elected consul despite every effort by the Senate to prevent it. Caesar arranged an alliance of himself, his rich friend Crassus and his old political ally, Pompey. Pompey had carried out at successful military expedition in the east and returned to Italy in 62 BCE. He wanted to settle his soldiers on land grants but the Senate refused to allow this. The three, Caesar, Pompey and Crassus, became effectively a triumvirate.
Prior to the formation of the triumvirate Crassus had been an opponent of Pompey. Pompey married Caesar's daughter Julia. At that time Caesar remarried.
His new wife, Calpurnia, was the daughter of the man who would win the consulship for the next year. As consul Caesar introduced into the Senate a law for the distribution of lands in Italy controlled by the government of Rome. Veterans like those of Pompey's had first call in this distribution. The patrician opposition tried very hard to prevent this law from being implemented but Caesar succeeded despite these efforts. Pompey's needs were thus taken care of.
Caesar's allies in the government arranged for him to become the governor of Cisalpine Gaul. When the designated governor for Transalpine Gaul died this province was given to Caesar as well. His governships were authorized to last from 58 to 54 BCE. Caesar stopped the Celtic tribe of the Helvetii from leaving their homeland in what is now Switzerland and migrating west. His forces also defeated a band of Germans led by Ariovistus.
Caesar's forces subdued Celtic tribes in Brittany and Normandy. Caesar's forces destroyed the Veneti, a Celtic tribe of southern Brittany. Caesar arranged a meeting in Cisalpine Gaul with Pompey and Crassus to settle differences.
Caesar was to become a consul in the year Furthermore a successor to Caesar as governor of the two Gauls would not be considered until the beginning of the year 50 BCE.
Caesar's forces anihilated two Germanic tribes which had invaded Gaul. His troops built a bridge across the Rhine and invaded the territory of the Germanic tribes.