Discovering Mughal, Rajput & Mauryan History: Children of Akbar and Mariam-Uz-Zamani Begum
Note that - MUZ means Mariam-Uz-Zamani. When Raja Bhagwan Das was seeing off his daughter(Man Bai) on her marriage to Prince Salim, he said to . He maintained his freedom of speech while giving advice to the. Maryam Makani and Salima Sultana Begum proved successful in bringing about a .. Umrah of Mughal court gave advice to Akbar that he should give a horrible of Maryum uz Zamani that the marriage of prince Salim and others took place. Salim and Khurram (Jehangir and Shah Jahan) Salim had 5 sons Look at Jehangir's advice to Khurram on not exceeding his limits on drinking wine. So despite Nur Jahan trying to create fissures in father son relationship, the relationship never was destroyed completely. Mariam uz zamani and Salim.
Nur Jahan agreed to hand over Khusrau custody to Khurram. Jehangir was angry at this arm twisting tactics of Khurram. Actually Khurram recieved news that Jehangir was very unwell and may not survive as he had suffered an heart attack.
To remove any favourite contenders of throne he ordered killing of Khusrau and his wife in custody. He further buried Khusrau without informing his father or other family and sent a letter saying Khusrau died of ill health.
By then Jehangir had become fine and a minister who was in deccan informed him that Khusrau may have been killed. It is true that the best of friends can only be the worst of enemies. For all the love Jehangir felt for his son, ultimately his son became his biggest rebel before death and worst critic after death too.
But despite all anger towards a ungrateful son Jehangir did allow Shah Jahan many lee ways — although shah jahan started a civil war by trying to capture key cities of Delhi and agra in Jehangirs absence and was defeated in many civil wars, Jehangir never caught him or punished him like he did a Khusrau.
He even did not attack mewar when Karan singh gave shelter to Shah Jahan and family. He did not take away all his jagirs states and looked after Dara Sukoh and Aurangzeb who were surrendered as hostages to Mahbhat Khan to avoid further civil wars nicely.
And despite all hatred towards Jehangir, Shah Jahna still gave funds to build Jehangir tomb in Lahore. So despite Nur Jahan trying to create fissures in father son relationship, the relationship never was destroyed completely. But it definetly caused great heartburn to Jehangir who faced rebellion of Khusrau and then Khurram, a replay of his own rebellion against his father Akbar.
- Jodha Bai: Akbar's wife, Jehangir's wife, Portuguese woman or a fictional character?
But that rebellion of Salim against Akbar did not have any volience except the killing of Abul Fazl the friend and biographer of Akbar. Unlike Khusrau and Khurrams rebellion, the Salim rebellion did not have the blood shed, the civil wars, the split in court along father and son camps etc. The outnumbered Mughal army then won a decisive victory on 2 September Akbar slew the rebel leaders and erected a tower out of their severed heads.
The only centre of Afghan power was now in Bengal, where Sulaiman Khan Karrani, an Afghan chieftain whose family had served under Sher Shah Suri, was reigning in power. While Sulaiman Khan scrupulously avoided giving offence to Akbar, his son, Daud Khanwho had succeeded him indecided otherwise.
The Mughal army was subsequently victorious at the Battle of Tukaroi inwhich led to the annexation of Bengal and parts of Bihar that had been under the dominion of Daud Khan. Only Orissa was left in the hands of the Karrani dynasty as a fief of the Mughal Empire. A year later, however, Daud Khan rebelled and attempted to regain Bengal.
He was defeated by the Mughal general, Khan Jahan Quliand had to flee into exile. Daud Khan was later captured and executed by Mughal forces. His severed head was sent to Akbar, while his limbs were gibbeted at Tandah, the Mughal capital in Bengal. Akbar's conquest of Gujarat Following his conquests of Gujarat and Bengal, Akbar was preoccupied with domestic concerns. He did not leave Fatehpur Sikri on a military campaign untilwhen the Punjab was again invaded by his brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim.
Akbar, however, spurred them on.#Agra Diaries – The tomb of Mariam-uz-Zamani
The soldiers were provided with pay eight months in advance. He stayed there for three weeks, in the absence of his brother, who had fled into the mountains. He pardoned his brother, who took up de facto charge of the Mughal administration in Kabul; Bakht-un-Nis continued to be the official governor. A few years later, inMuhammad Hakim died and Kabul passed into the hands of Akbar once again.
It was officially incorporated as a province of the Mughal Empire.
Akbar and his sons
Thus freed, Akbar began a series of campaigns to pacify the Yusufzais and other rebels. Raja Birbala renowned minister in Akbar's court, was also given military command. The expedition turned out to be a disaster, and on its retreat from the mountains, Birbal and his entourage were ambushed and killed by the Afghans at the Malandarai Pass in February Over the next six years, the Mughals contained the Yusufzai in the mountain valleys, and forced the submission of many chiefs in Swat and Bajaur.
Akbar's response demonstrated his ability to clamp firm military control over the Afghan tribes. There was only a transient occupation of the two provinces by the Mughals under his grandson, Shah Jahanin the midth century.
The last of the rebellious Afghan tribes were subdued by The Afridi and Orakzai tribes, which had risen up under the Roshaniyyas, had been subjugated. Ali Shah surrendered immediately to the Mughals, but another of his sons, Yaqub, crowned himself as king, and led a stubborn resistance to Mughal armies. Finally, in June,Akbar himself travelled from Lahore to Srinagar to receive the surrender of Yaqub and his rebel forces. Sincethe northern fortress of Bhakkar had remained under imperial control.
Now, inthe Mughal governor of Multan tried and failed to secure the capitulation of Mirza Jani Beg, the independent ruler of Thatta in southern Sindh. Jani Beg mustered a large army to meet the Mughals. After suffering further defeats, Jani Beg surrendered to the Mughals inand inpaid homage to Akbar in Lahore. In preparations to take Kandahar from the Safavids, Akbar ordered the Mughal forces to conquer the rest of the Afghan held parts of Baluchistan in As a result, the modern-day Pakistani and Afghan parts of Baluchistan, including the areas of the strategic region of Makran that lay within it, became a part of the Mughal Empire.
However, the Safavids considered it as an appanage of the Persian ruled territory of Khorasan and declared its association with the Mughal emperors to be a usurpation. Inwhile Akbar was consolidating his rule over northern India, the Safavid emperor, Tahmasp Ihad seized Kandahar and expelled its Mughal governor.
For the next thirty years, it remained under Persian rule. Akbar even decalred publicly he loved his grandsons more than sons this was direct dig at Prince Salim. This angered and shocked Salim to no extent but he had no options but to bear these insults silently.
Salim when he was in his early 30s once collapsed after heavy drinking in his palace and the Hakim- doctor told him that if he did not stop drinking he did not have many months to live as his liver had damaged considerably.
At that time Salim was drinking 40 glasses of wine day and reduced it to 20 glasses a day after the warning. It was only a surprise that Salim did not succumb to heavy drinking like his other two brothers Murad and Daniyal.
Like they say the plants under a huge banyan tree never grow and die young under its shades, Akbars sons did not get a chance to grow under his huge stature. They even felt he was neglecting them or not taking their advice on empire and even family matters hence wasted their life drinking away. Akbar did not make things by sending them away from family and also pitting against them against each other. That led them to defy Akbars orders and advice and drinking heavily to forget the neglect from their father.
Salim was not only pitted against his brothers but Akbar even pitted him against his own elder son Khusrau by taking him into his house hold and giving him high ranking of 10, mansabdar at age 7 years. This led to more fissures between father and son. Adding to that Khurram also was taken into Akbars household and Ruqaiah Begum became his foster mother.
He was mostly away as governor of Ajmer or wars with Persia or Rajputhana.
Ruqaiya Sultan Begum
This led to a great conflict in his family, his wives got lonely and his kids came under influence of relatives and Nobels instigated them against their father for their own benefits.
Why did all these people dislike Salim and support Khusrau? The reasons are many, few thought Salim is a drunkard and cannot handle empire properly. Some had personal hatred for Salim as he would not get easily influenced by their thoughts unlike a Akbar or Khusrau.
Some felt he would be orthodox and not liberal like Akbar which proved wrong in later stages. Salim was just using religion as tool to gain approval for his succession, once he became emperor and consolidated power he started acting like an atheist.
He refused to allow any religious influence in politics and never hesitated to put in prison or kill any threat to his throne that included Sikhs or Muslim religious. When the battle of succession was ensuing Salim ensured everyone thought he favoured them, the muslim clergy thought he will reintroduce orthodox Islam in court and empire, the Christian portugese priests thought he will convert to Christianity etc.
In Prince Salim returned to imperial courts. Salim refused, said Akbar is aged and hence he must stay in Agra court. Akbar was angered by this refusal and started giving more powers to Khusrau. The world was talking that Khusrau will succeed his grandfather and not Salim. Instead inSalim rebelled and marched to agra fort with intention to steal the royal treasury.
But his grandmother and step mothers thwarted this effort.
Akbar - Wikipedia
Salim with his army went to Allahabad and set up independent rule and minted coins in his name. Akbar tried his best too contain the rebellion by appointing Salim governor of Bengal etc but Salim refused to stop rebellion.
Salim felt that Abul Fazal was instigating his father against him.