Liam alvey relationship marketing and customer

Relationship marketing - Wikipedia

According to Liam Alvey, relationship marketing can be applied when you can find competitive product alternatives for customers to choose from; and when. between customer relationship management and relationship marketing of Iran Melli Bank of . According to Liam Alvey, relationship marketing can be. According to Liam Alvey, relationship marketing can be applied when there are competitive product alternatives for customers to choose from;.

Relationship marketing has also migrated back into direct mail, allowing marketers to take advantage of the technological capabilities of digital, toner-based printing presses to produce unique, personalized pieces for each recipient through a technique called " variable data printing ". Marketers can personalize documents by any information contained in their databases, including name, address, demographics, purchase history, and dozens or even hundreds of other variables. The result is a printed piece that ideally reflects the individual needs and preferences of each recipient, increasing the relevance of the piece and increasing the response rate.

Relationship marketing

Scope[ edit ] Relationship marketing has also been strongly influenced by reengineering. According to process reengineering theory, organizations should be structured according to complete tasks and processes rather than functions. That is, cross-functional teams should be responsible for a whole process, from beginning to end, rather than having the work go from one functional department to another. Traditional marketing is said to use the functional or 'silo' department approach. The legacy of this can still be seen in the traditional four P's of the marketing mix.

Pricingproduct managementpromotionand placement.

liam alvey relationship marketing and customer

According to Gordonthe marketing mix approach is too limited to provide a usable framework for assessing and developing customer relationships in many industries and should be replaced by the relationship marketing alternative model where the focus is on customers, relationships and interaction over time, rather than markets and products.

In contrast, relationship marketing is cross-functional marketing. It is organized around processes that involve all aspects of the organization. In fact, some commentators prefer to call relationship marketing "relationship management" in recognition of the fact that it involves much more than that which is normally included in marketing.

Relationship marketing

Because of its broad scope, relationship marketing can be effective in many contexts. As well as being relevant to 'for profit' businesses, research indicates that relationship marketing can be useful for organizations in the voluntary sector [7] and also in the public sector.

Satisfaction[ edit ] Relationship marketing relies upon the communication and acquisition of consumer requirements solely from existing customers in a mutually beneficial exchange usually involving permission for contact by the customer through an " opt-in " system. Although groups targeted through relationship marketing may be large, accuracy of communication and overall relevancy to the customer remains higher than that of direct marketing, but has less potential for generating new leads than direct marketing and is limited to Viral marketing for the acquisition of further customers.

Research by John Fleming and Jim Asplund indicates that engaged customers generate 1. According to Buchanan and Gilles, [18] the increased profitability associated with customer retention efforts occurs because of several factors that occur once a relationship has been established with a customer. The cost of acquisition occurs only at the beginning of a relationship, so the longer the relationship, the lower the amortized cost.

Account maintenance costs decline as a percentage of total costs or as a percentage of revenue. Long-term customers tend to be less inclined to switch, and also tend to be less price sensitive. This can result in stable unit sales volume and increases in dollar-sales volume. Long-term customers may initiate free word of mouth promotions and referrals.

liam alvey relationship marketing and customer

Long-term customers are more likely to purchase ancillary products and high margin supplemental products. Customers that stay with you tend to be satisfied with the relationship and are less likely to switch to competitors, making it difficult for competitors to enter the market or gain market share. Regular customers tend to be less expensive to service because they are familiar with the process, require less "education", and are consistent in their order placement.

Increased customer retention and loyalty makes the employees' jobs easier and more satisfying. In turn, happy employees feed back into better customer satisfaction in a virtuous circle. Relationship marketers speak of the "relationship ladder of customer loyalty ".

It groups types of customers according to their level of loyalty. The ladder's first rung consists of "prospects", that is, people that have not purchased yet but are likely to in the future. This is followed by the successive rungs of "customer", "client", "supporter", "advocate", and "partner". The relationship marketer's objective is to "help" customers get as high up the ladder as possible.

This usually involves providing more personalized service and providing service quality that exceeds expectations at each step. Customer retention efforts involve considerations such as the following: Customer valuation — Gordon describes how to value customers and categorize them according to their financial and strategic value so that companies can decide where to invest for deeper relationships and which relationships need to be served differently or even terminated.

Customer retention measurement — Dawkins and Reichheld calculated a company's "customer retention rate". This is simply the percentage of customers at the beginning of the year that are still customers by the end of the year. This ratio can be used to make comparisons between products, between market segments, and over time. Determine reasons for defection — Look for the root causes, not mere symptoms. This involves probing for details when talking to former customers.

Other techniques include the analysis of customers' complaints and competitive benchmarking see competitor analysis. Develop and implement a corrective plan — This could involve actions to improve employee practices, using benchmarking to determine best corrective practices, visible endorsement of top management, adjustments to the company's reward and recognition systems, and the use of "recovery teams" to eliminate the causes of defections.

A technique to calculate the value to a firm of a sustained customer relationship has been developed. This calculation is typically called customer lifetime value. Retention strategies may also include building barriers to customer switching.

This can be done by product bundling combining several products or services into one "package" and offering them at a single pricecross-selling selling related products to current customerscross promotions giving discounts or other promotional incentives to purchasers of related productsloyalty programs giving incentives for frequent purchasesincreasing switching costs adding termination costs, such as mortgage termination feesand integrating computer systems of multiple organizations primarily in industrial marketing.

Many relationship marketers use a team-based approach. The rationale is that the more points of contact between the organization and customer, the stronger will be the bond, and the more secure the relationship. Application[ edit ] Relationship marketing and traditional or transactional marketing are not mutually exclusive and there is no need for a conflict between them.

liam alvey relationship marketing and customer

In practice, a relationship-oriented marketer still has choices, depending on the situation. Most firms blend the two approaches to match their portfolio of products and services. Social bond refers to the relationship established through the collective blood relationship between people. Relationship marketing is to establish and strengthen these two kinds of bonds, especially the structural bond, so as to strengthen the relationship with clients and lock them in.

Morgan and Hunt made a distinction between economic and social exchange on the basis of exchange theory and concluded that the basic guarantee of social exchange was the spirit of the contract of trust and commitment. The traditional marketing concept of one-time transaction begins to transfer to the concept of relationship marketing. Regular customers tend to be less expensive to service because they are familiar with the process, require less "education", and are consistent in their order placement.

Increased customer retention and loyalty makes the employees' jobs easier and more satisfying. In turn, happy employees feed back into better customer satisfaction in a virtuous circle. Relationship marketers speak of the "relationship ladder of customer loyalty ". It groups types of customers according to their level of loyalty. The ladder's first rung consists of "prospects", that is, people that have not purchased yet but are likely to in the future.

This is followed by the successive rungs of "customer", "client", "supporter", "advocate", and "partner". The relationship marketer's objective is to "help" customers get as high up the ladder as possible. This usually involves providing more personalized service and providing service quality that exceeds expectations at each step. Customer retention efforts involve considerations such as the following: Customer valuation — Gordon describes how to value customers and categorize them according to their financial and strategic value so that companies can decide where to invest for deeper relationships and which relationships need to be served differently or even terminated.

Customer retention measurement — Dawkins and Reichheld calculated a company's "customer retention rate".

liam alvey relationship marketing and customer

This is simply the percentage of customers at the beginning of the year that are still customers by the end of the year. This ratio can be used to make comparisons between products, between market segments, and over time. Determine reasons for defection — Look for the root causes, not mere symptoms.

This involves probing for details when talking to former customers. Other techniques include the analysis of customers' complaints and competitive benchmarking see competitor analysis. Develop and implement a corrective plan — This could involve actions to improve employee practices, using benchmarking to determine best corrective practices, visible endorsement of top management, adjustments to the company's reward and recognition systems, and the use of "recovery teams" to eliminate the causes of defections.

A technique to calculate the value to a firm of a sustained customer relationship has been developed. This calculation is typically called customer lifetime value. Retention strategies may also include building barriers to customer switching. This can be done by product bundling combining several products or services into one "package" and offering them at a single pricecross selling selling related products to current customerscross promotions giving discounts or other promotional incentives to purchasers of related productsloyalty programs giving incentives for frequent purchasesincreasing switching costs adding termination costs, such as mortgage termination feesand integrating computer systems of multiple organizations primarily in industrial marketing.

Many relationship marketers use a team-based approach. The rationale is that the more points of contact between the organization and customer, the stronger will be the bond, and the more secure the relationship. Application Relationship marketing and traditional or transactional marketing are not mutually exclusive and there is no need for a conflict between them. In practice, a relationship-oriented marketer still has choices, depending on the situation.

Most firms blend the two approaches to match their portfolio of products and services. Many products have a service component to them and this service component has been getting larger in recent decades. Internal marketing Relationship marketing stresses what it calls internal marketing, or using a marketing orientation within the organization itself. It is claimed that many of the relationship marketing attributes like collaboration, loyalty and trust determine what "internal customers" say and do.

According to this theory, every employee, team, or department in the company is simultaneously a supplier and a customer of services and products. An employee obtains a service at a point in the value chain and then provides a service to another employee further along the value chain. If internal marketing is effective, every employee will both provide and receive exceptional service from and to other employees.

It also helps employees understand the significance of their roles and how their roles relate to others'. If implemented well, it can also encourage every employee to see the process in terms of the customer's perception of value added, and the organization's strategic mission. Further it is claimed that an effective internal marketing program is a prerequisite for effective external marketing efforts.

Referral marketing is developing and implementing a marketing plan to stimulate referrals. Although it may take months before you see the effect of referral marketing, this is often the most effective part of an overall marketing plan and the best use of resources. Marketing to suppliers is aimed at ensuring a long-term conflict-free relationship in which all parties understand each other's needs and exceed each other's expectations.

Such a strategy can reduce costs and improve quality. Influence markets involve a wide range of sub-markets including: These activities are typically carried out by the public relations department, but relationship marketers feel that marketing to all six markets is the responsibility of everyone in the organization.

Each market may require its own explicit strategies and a separate marketing mix for each. Live-in Marketing Live-in Marketing LIM is a variant of marketing and advertising in which the target consumer is allowed to sample or use a brands product in a relaxed atmosphere over a longer period of time.

Relationship Marketing - ppt download

Much like product placement in film and television LIM was developed as a means to reach select target demographics in a non-invasive and much less garish manner than traditional advertising. History While LIM represents an entirely untapped avenue of marketing for both big and small brands alike it is not an all that novel an idea.

With the rising popularity of experiential and event marketing [15] in North America and Europe, as well as the relatively high ROI in terms of advertising dollars spent on experiential marketing compared to traditional big media advertising, industry analysts see LIM as a natural progression.