Functional Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
The pituitary gland then releases the hormones that affect homeostasis. Figure The working relationship of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. PDF | Hypothalamo-pituitary development during embryogenesis is a highly Genetic aspects of hypothalamic and pituitary gland development The definitive Rathke's pouch is formed as its connection to the oral ectoderm is T1/3D T2 HR amenait au même résultat pour les deux observateurs. The pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis, is a roundish organ that lies from the Visible Human Project, shows these anatomical relationships in the.
The image to the right shows a frontal view of a pig pituitary gland and hypothalamus. The posterior gland can be seen peeking out behind the anterior gland; pass your mouse cursor over the image for labels image courtesy of Dr.
Relationship Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
The anterior and posterior pituitary have separate embryological origins. In many mammals, there is also an intermediate lobe pars intermedia between the anterior and posterior pituitary. A key to understanding the endocrine relationship between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary is to appreciate the vascular connections between these organs.
As will be emphasized in later sections, secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary is under strict control by hypothalamic hormones.
These hypothalamic hormones reach the anterior pituitary through the following route: A branch of the hypophyseal artery ramifies into a capillary bed in the lower hypothalamus, and hypothalmic hormones destined for the anterior pituitary are secreted into that capillary blood.
Blood from those capillaries drains into hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. Portal veins are defined as veins between two capillary beds; the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins branch again into another series of capillaries within the anterior pituitary.
Capillaries within the anterior pituitary, which carry hormones secreted by that gland, coalesce into veins that drain into the systemic venous blood. Those veins also collect capillary blood from the posterior pituitary gland. The hypothalamus is shown in figure 1. Hypothalamus The main function of the hypothalamus is to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It responds to a variety of internal and external signals of the body via the nervous system.
It controls the blood pressure, the levels of circulating hormones, body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional activity. The function of the autonomic nervous system is also controlled by the hypothalamus. Two types of hormones are produced by the hypothalamus. One type of hormones are sent to the posterior pituitary gland for the secretion.
They are the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin. Antidiuretic hormone reabsorbs water from the kidney. Oxytocin contracts the uterus during the childbirth and releases breast milk.
The other type of hormones may contain inhibitory or stimulating actions on the secondary endocrine organs of the body. These hormones are sent to the anterior pituitary gland for the secretion.
What is Pituitary Gland The pituitary gland is the major endocrine gland, which is attached to the base of the brain and controls the production and release of hormones from other endocrine glands. The two lobes of the pituitary gland are called the anterior pituitary adenohypophysis and the posterior pituitary neurohypophysis.
The anterior pituitary comprises glandular cells. The posterior pituitary gland comprises nerve cells. The structure of the pituitary gland is shown in figure 2. Posterior pituitary secretes the hormones produced in the hypothalamus.
The secretions of the other endocrine glands are regulated by the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Therefore, the pituitary gland is called the master gland of the body.
23 best Pituitary Gland images on Pinterest | Health, Pineal gland and Endocrine System
It regulates the secretion of hormones from the adrenal gland, thyroid glandhypothalamus, thymuspineal gland, pancreas, and gonads. Through these hormones, growth, development, metabolismblood pressure, sexual maturation, and reproduction are controlled.
Relationship Between Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Vascular Connection Hypothalamus is located below the thalamus whereas pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus.