An Analysis of Educational Quality of Universities in the North of Vietnam | OMICS International
I.2 Current Structure of the Vietnamese Higher Education System. these key elements and where Vietnam's main constraints lie in relation to them. Key. In divided Vietnam, education continued to be a channel for social mobility in both In Vietnam the student-teacher relationship retains much of the quality of a . and having a dialectical relationship when the history of human beings . According to Phan Ngoc Lien, the Vietnamese folk education existed thousands.
Competitors in Asia including Australia and Singapore promote proximity, affordable costs, and the possibility of post-graduation employment. Currently, there are universities and colleges operating in Vietnam.
Vietnamese universities have room for onlystudents of the over 1. Most Vietnamese students in higher education study at the undergraduate level. Three top priorities of the Vietnamese government in the next ten years include infrastructure, institutional reform, and human resources development. Improving domestic education is a top priority in various plans and the initiatives include ambitious goals, such as a ten percent annual increase in domestic university enrollment and developing a higher education system that is more in line with global standards.
Because of this, the Vietnamese government has increased the budget allocations, liberalized private sector involvement, and encouraged foreign participation in developing education and training services. However, many observers find the reform process to be slow and that domestic higher education falls far short of meeting the demand.
Education and training are top priorities for the government, which needs to equip the labor force with scientific, technological, and management skills. As new industries expand, a university degree is increasingly essential for young Vietnamese workers searching for higher paying jobs in newly emerging industries.
The government has acknowledged that the current education system is unable to meet the demand. Opportunities for higher education are limited since the system can accommodate only a fraction of those seeking admission. Although the number of university students has doubled sincethe number of professors remains virtually unchanged. Furthermore, a large percentage of university graduates cannot find jobs in their perspective fields or at all without further training, demonstrating a need for a more practical and effective education.
This is making many Vietnamese students to look for education opportunities outside of Vietnam. Marketing Strategies Local representation is essential for the success of any U.
Students and parents depend on people from Vietnam with whom they can clearly communicate about navigating the process of applying for admission and studying in the U. A representative could be an alumnus or someone with ties and familiarity with your school to handle in-country marketing and outreach, and serve as a local point of contact.
Education agents typically represent numerous schools at one time, from the U. One of the most effective and low-cost ways of recruiting students is to establish and support an alumni network in Vietnam. For more information, please visit http: Doanabout the same time as the Soviet Union began perestroika. The literacy rate was 88 percent in going down.
This was a sharp decline from Although access to higher levels of education has been limited, the introduction of near-universal primary education has produced a high literacy rate. According to the World Bank figures, 83 percent of the population over 15 years old was literate. Encyclopedia of Sexuality, 2. The national education system nowadays comprises five levels: In addition, vocational education and training provides educational opportunities for those secondary school leavers who are unable to enter higher education [Source: First, public or state-run cong lap institutions are funded by the government.
The majority of staff working in public schools are government officers or permanent staff members. Second, semi-public ban cong institutions are provided with rudimentary premises by the State.
Third, people-founded dan lap schools are created and managed by a social organization and excluded from State- funding schemes. Lastly, private tu thuc schools or universities are financed and administered completely by individuals or groups of individuals. These forms of institutions are found in all levels of the educational system. Regarding the policy-making system, the central government, through the Ministry of Education and Training MOET and its departments, formulates and adopts education policies.
In effect, education reforms are based on the overall. In particular, the National Assembly also promulgates the laws on education and makes decisions concerning budgetary and strategic plans for educational development. Under this centralised management structure, each level of the education system is subject to a different degree of central control over the curriculum. The primary school and secondary school curricula are national and compulsory and, therefore, centrally controlled.
- Fact Sheet: United States-Vietnam Education Cooperation
- An Analysis of Educational Quality of Universities in the North of Vietnam
The number of hours, curriculum content and textbooks are dictated by the MOET. Central control over the curriculum consequently enforces common practices and standards across the whole system, and is associated with the adoption of a national system of qualifications. In higher education, the under- graduate and postgraduate curricula also follow the uniform frameworks set by the MOET, which determine the total number of credits and the percentage of core courses, required courses and specialised courses for each field of study.
Control is centralised particularly in respect of required courses, such as Marxist-Leninist political sciences, in terms of the number of hours and the teaching content. In the following sections, the centralised control of the MOET over the curriculum will be analysed in detail in relation to moral education.
Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral education is incorporated in the formal curriculum and taught as a single subject of study at all levels of the Vietnamese education system.
The focus of moral education in primary schools is character and personality building. In secondary schools, the syllabuses focus on citizenship education, emphasising the notion of developing a socialist citizen. In higher education, the ideas of inculcating socialist thoughts and socialist principles are as important as building intellectual ability, thus, Marxist sciences and Ho Chi Minh thoughts are compulsory taught courses and make up 12 percent of total study hours in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum.
Traditional morality is transmitted through informal channels of education, such as family education and religious institutions, while socialist morality is enforced through formal channels of the national curriculum and in various social activities and movements. However, it is still a real challenge for the Vietnamese educational system to redefine the objectives and content of moral education in order to cope with the complexity of a fast-changing society.
The wording normally appears in a large red banner posted right at the main entrance. This Chinese-Vietnamese saying implicitly means that proper manners in human relations are the very first thing to be learnt at school, while knowledge and language are only secondary.
These are considered a pair of key qualities of social human beings that the socialist educational system aims to produce. Moral education is also associated with standards of behaviour justified by people as right and proper, and is to be conducted willingly without the interference of law. Moral education is also understood as perspectives, viewpoints and behaviour of people in such social relations as self in relation to other persons, groups and organizations SRV MOET, a, p.
Organization refers to the State, social-political organizations, religious bodies and so on. Moral education, therefore, takes various forms and has its definitions shaped by socio-political standards and values prevailing at the time.
This article aims to explore the role and characteristics of moral education in contemporary Vietnam in the contexts of social changes and under the long-lasting impacts of different social values of Confucianism, Communism and several religions.
The socialist principles require the full commitment of individuals to the success of socialism.
A socialist perspective is also enforced as the only philosophy of life. Because of its rigid view, socialist morality can only be transmitted and delivered through institutionalised channels, formal, obligatory and compulsory.
However, this gives rise to quite a dilemma when the market economy has had a gradual impact on individual perspectives about values. Now in the market economy, success is no longer an across-the- board notion defined by the socialist state. These activities, ranging from contests to campaigns and movements, usually aim to review revolutionary traditions, to train young people to love and respect labor, to preserve socialist values and so on. Popular activities include singing contests to highlight revolutionary music, essay-writing contests on the revolutionary tradition of the Communist, and knowledge contests on the history and tradition of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
It is the main job of the Trade Union and The Communist Youth Union in every workplace or residential area to play active roles in leading these activities.
Twelve contests required by the national Trade Union within nine months is viewed by this Chairman as a big waste of time and money Nguyen, The latter particularly reminds young people to read and think more and more about national heroes and revolutionary soldiers, and to help families of dead soldiers and families which have made a great contribution to the success of the Communist Party.
Taking part in the Green Summer Campaign, for example, will give students high credit. Side by side with academic achievement, grades of self-improvement are the other important criteria qualifying students for selection for scholarships and grants.
Despite all these tremendous efforts made by the Ministry of Education and Training, by the Office of Political Affairs at every university and by every single teacher of Marxist-Leninist subjects, higher education students are not really convinced that those subjects are necessary for their intellectual and moral development.
For example, they live their real life in a growing market economy, an emerging consumer society, which accommodates a big gap between the poor and the rich, whereas they learn at school that socialist society ensures social equality for every individual. They also learn that workers and the working class shape the morality and power of the society; however, it is hard to trust the leadership capability of the working class.
Recent research on young university graduates in Vietnam showed that by the s not only had young people become anxious about getting rich, but the dream of getting rich had also become a common goal. It comes from the ideology that Marxist sciences serve as the foundation for all sciences, and that Marxist philosophy on scientific research provides the guiding methods for all types of scientific research studies.
In effect, all research studies in social sciences need to make good reference to Marxist ideologies. Thus, higher education curricula have been under strong criticism from participants, teaching staff and the wider public for their over-emphasis on political subjects Nguyen,p. A study on the motives for overseas study among Vietnamese academics in found that the discouraging quality of the postgraduate education inside Vietnam has motivated a large number of university staff to seek overseas study.
One of the perceived major shortcomings of the programmes is the requirement of many political subjects, viewed as irrelevant and time-consuming Doan,p. Students have many reasons for why they dislike political subjects. The first reason is because the subjects are not seen as practical in their search for knowledge. Above all, the concepts of socialist morality seem to be prevailing within the scope of the courses only.
Thus, Vietnamese educators and sociologists generally comment that moral education either has not been taught at all in school or has been taught improperly Duong, As Vietnamese society has begun to modernise, young Vietnamese also start searching for their own image and identity.
Unfortunately, in order to present a particular image of themselves they have tended to imitate the image of models found in commercial photos and fashionable movies, which in fact only promote a luxurious, material life and earthly values.
EDUCATION IN VIETNAM
People also claim that the poor quality and inappropriate methods of moral education in the educational system have resulted in the increase of social problems, as well as the decrease of morality among young people Nguyen, It is obvious that moral education in the formal curriculum has been mistakenly replaced by political and legal teaching, and therefore has very little impact on the development of personality, character and the morality of students Duong, In fact, from Grade 10 in high school, students are taught about two different systems of morality existing in Vietnamese society, that is traditional morality and socialist morality.
The first is associated with a system of virtues and values rooted in Confucianism. Confucian principles, which emphasise social order and the self- improvement of human beings, have had a long-lasting influence on Vietnamese culture, especially during the feudalist period. Social order under Confucianism is maintained by the implementation of strict principles of human relations, both in the family and society at large. In effect, Confucian principles enforce absolute respect and obedience of children to parents, wife to husband, subordinate to superior, subject to master, and students to teachers.
Confucian values also emphasise the contribution and devotion of individuals towards the progress of the community. Besides, Confucian values also emphasise the superior role of male over female in the contexts of family, community and society. Family education somehow helps preserve these principles. Their notion of success in life would be incomplete and imbalanced if it resulted in only professional and financial gains and lacked aspects of family success Nguyen,p.
Morality and social values are transmitted through various channels: Christian churches and Buddhist pagodas usually provide a complete series of religious lessons for different age groups and different levels, which focus mostly on teaching morality. It is worth mentioning that religious education is not allowed in the formal education curriculum. However, churches and pagodas play a significant part in educating family cultures, community spirit and moral values among religious members.
In addition, Vietnamese society has a rich family-oriented culture, therefore family education is highly valued. However, in the process of the modernisation of society, where both parents work outside the house, family bonds become less solid. This situation is more obvious in nuclear families as children are sent to school and spend most of their time at school from a very young age.
Fact Sheet: United States-Vietnam Education Cooperation | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Vietnam
The education of children is put completely in the hands of teachers. The opportunity for family members to get together at family meals and engage in family education has also become rare in modern life.
This raises widespread concern that the family structure is in danger of falling apart, and preserving traditional principles and values becomes more and more difficult in the present day. The ministry conducted a review of state employees who claimed they had received qualifications from six universities in Ho Chi Minh City. One in 10 of the certificates were fakes. Sharper scrutiny of qualifications at that university has reportedly resulted in 62 expulsions this year, with 12 of those involved government employees undergoing training.
A newspaper revealed that the qualifications of some administrators - most of them members of the communist party - were inadequate, with 65 percent of managers at state-owned-enterprises unable to read a balance sheet. Graft is reportedly becoming a concern with regard to high school graduation certificates and university entrance examinations, with investigations revealing that qualifications and high marks are increasingly easy to buy.
In only students nationwide met those conditions, but in the figure was 3," the report said. Diplomats and Vietnamese sources say even donor-funded overseas scholarships are subject to widespread nepotism, while anecdotal evidence suggests that sections of the flourishing private education sector are a sham, with students able to buy qualifications without attending classes.
The officers also confiscated 62 bogus seals that were used to validate phoney university awards in civil engineering, finance and education. Some of the employees were left to work, several up to a decade past their retirement age, which means that younger employees have missed out on promotions.