Anatomy & Physiology I & II - OLI
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, "dissection") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of they are composed, their locations and their relationships with other parts. . In some slow-moving radially symmetrical marine animals such as. Demonstrate the anatomical position; Describe the human body using longer used in everyday conversation, the meaning of their words does not change. . scanner move to produce sequential images of the body in the frontal plane, and . Anatomy "is to physiology as geography is to history" (Femel); that is, it provides In relation to the size of the parts studied, anatomy is usually divided into (1) It is often necessary, however, to describe the position of the viscera also in the and back of the body at what are called the anterior and posterior me dian lines.
Define blood pressure BP and describe factors that influence blood pressure. Define venous return and describe how skeletal muscles and the respiratory pump help maintain venous return.
Describe the cardiac cycle and all of its phases. Describe the conduction system of the heart, including the role of the autonomic nervous system in regulating aspects of cardiac conduction.
Describe the different modes of transport that molecules may take during capillary exchange. Relate imbalances in capillary exchange to edema. Identify the waveforms in a normal ECG and relate them to the activity of the conduction system of the heart.
Cardiovascular Levels of Organization Describe common changes of the circulatory system related to aging. Describe the anatomical structure of the arteries in the body and relate it with their function.
Describe the anatomical structure of the veins in the body and relate it with their function. Describe the anatomical structures of the heart and major blood vessels entering and leaving the heart. Relate the features of these structures to blood flow into, out of, and through the heart. Describe the anatomy of the aorta and its major branches and relate it with their functions. Describe the basic process of hematopoiesis, where it occurs, and the significance of the pluripotent stem cell hemocytoblast in the process.
Describe the features of blood that give it the characteristics of a connective tissue. Describe the functions for each of the five major types of leukocytes as well as the two major subtypes of lymphocytes T and B. Describe the overall composition of plasma, including the major types of plasma proteins, their functions, and where in the body they are produced.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Describe the phases of hemostasis. Describe the properties of the vessel wall layers tunica interna, media, externa and associate each with the function of different vessel types.
Describe the structure and function of arterioles, metarterioles, capillaries, and venules. Describe the structure and function of platelets. Identify the function of red blood cells and describe the life cycle of red blood cells, including how and where iron and heme are recycled, as well as the resulting breakdown products.
Identify the microscopic features of erythrocytes red blood cellsthe five types of leukocytes white blood cellsand thrombocytes platelets. Identify the three kinds of cells that make up the myocardium and describe the role of each in the physiology of muscle contraction.
Identify the types of cells associated with blood vessels and relate them to the different properties of blood vessels. Cardiovascular Homeostasis Describe factors that could disrupt homeostasis of the cardiovascular system and predict the types of homeostatic imbalances that would occur.
Explain how the cardiovascular system relates to other body systems to maintain homeostasis through autoregulation. Cardiovascular System Integration of Systems Describe the determinants of blood flow to an organ or tissue. Explain the role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulation of cardiac output. Identify the hormones involved in regulating blood volume flow and blood pressure and the role they play in these processes.
Respiratory System Module Respiratory System Introduction Describe major functions and processes of the respiratory system Module Describe the mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Describe the structure and function of the the respiratory conducting zone and respiratory zone. Describe how the structure of these macromolecules allow the structures of the respiratory system to perform their functions. Describe the changes in epithelial and connective tissue seen in various portions of the air passageways and relate these changes to function. Describe the four respiratory processes — ventilation, external respiration gas exchange at lunginternal respiration gas exchange at body tissuesand cellular respiration.
Explain the mechanisms of gas transport in the blood. Respiratory Homeostasis Explain and analyze respiratory homeostatic mechanisms. Urinary System Module Urinary System Introduction Describe the major functions of the urinary system. Urinary Structures and Functions Define countercurrent multiplication and countercurrent exchange, and describe how this relates to urine formation. Describe the last portion of urine transport and collection for elimination.
Describe the micturition reflex and the voluntary and involuntary neural control of micturition. Describe the process of tubular reabsoption including specific transport mechanisms, including active transport and osmosis. Describe the process of tubular secretion.
Homeostasis (article) | Human body systems | Khan Academy
Identify and describe the functional process of urine formation, including filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Urinary Levels of Organization Define the chemical properties of urine and their functions.
Describe normal urine composition. Describe the anatomy and the detailed histology of the nephron. Describe the internal and external structure of the kidney, including its location, support structures and covering. Identify the major blood vessels associated with the kidney. Identify, and describe the structure and location of, the ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. Urinary Homeostasis Explain and analyze urinary homeostatic mechanisms.
Identify and describe the factors regulating and altering urine volume and composition, including the renin-angiotensin system and the roles of aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and the natriuretic peptides.
Lymphatic System Module Lymphatic System Introduction Describe the lymphatic system: Explore some common misconceptions about the lymphatic system. Recognize Big Ideas seen in the workings of individual components of the Lymphatic System and Immunity. Lymphatic Structures and Functions Compare and contrast interstitial fluid and lymph. Compare and contrast lymphatic vessels and blood vessels in terms of structure and function.
Describe the mechanisms of lymph formation and circulation. Describe the path of lymph circulation. Describe early events in the history of immunology in relation to current understanding of immunity. Describe the major functions of the lymphatic system. Identify dysfunction associated with the lymphatic circulation. Identify major diseases associated with the lymphatic system and their causes. Lymphatic Levels of Organization Compare and contrast innate defenses with adaptive defenses.
Analyze ways in which the innate and adaptive immunity cooperate to enhance the overall resistance to disease. Compare and contrast interstitial fluid and lymph. Describe the basic structure and cellular composition of lymphatic tissues and correlate them to the overall functions of the lymphatic system. Define and describe location of antigens and antigen receptors. Discuss the source of antigen receptor diversity. Define and describe location of major histocompatibility complex MHC.
Define and describe the functional role of the important cytokines participating in the immune response. Define and describe the roles of various types of white blood cells in the innate and adaptive immune response and correlate them to the overall functions of the lymphatic system.
Describe antibody structure, list the five classes of antibodies and functional features that distinguish each class. Describe how histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and complement contribute to flammation. Describe the basic structure and function of chemical molecules of the lymphatic system and correlate it to the overall functions of lymphatic system.
Describe the mechanisms of inflammation initiation. Summarize the cells and chemicals involved in the inflammatory process. List and explain the cause of the four cardinal signs of inflammation. Explain the benefits of inflammation. Describe the origin and roles of various white blood cells in innate immunity. Describe the steps involved in phagocytosis and give examples of phagocytic cells in the body.
Describe the types of defensive mechanisms of innate immunity such as barriers, phagocytosis, inflammation and fever. Distinguish between innate and adaptive immunity. Distinguish the various types of lymphocytes including helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, plasma cells and memory cells.
Distinguish between humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Describe the immunological memory response. Explain how interferons, complement and tranferrins function as antimicrobial chemicals.
Explain how the kinin-kallikrein and complement systems aid in the inflammatory response. Describe the mechanism and benefits of fever and the role of pyrogens. Identify the lymphatic organs and correlate them to the overall functions of the of the lymphatic system.
Identify and describe the gross anatomical and microscopic anatomy of each organ. Describe the location and function of each organ. Integrate the levels of organization in the lymphatic system and their functional interconnections. Name the barriers and describe their anatomic, chemical and microbiological mechanisms of defense. Name the cells of the adaptive immune response and correlate their function to the overall functions of the adaptive immune response.
Name the cells of the innate immune response and correlate their function to the overall functions of the innate immune response. Compare and contrast mechanisms of antigen challenge and the clonal selection processes and defense mechanisms. Explain the role of antigen-presenting cells APCs.
Distinguish and describe the processing of exogenous and endogenous antigens and provide examples of APCs. Explore the condition and symptoms of B-Cell Chronic Leukemia using concepts and vocabulary from the Lymphatic System unit. Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the lymphatic system responds to maintain homeostasis in the body, particularly related to the diseases presented in the introduction. Lymphatic System Integration of Systems Explain how the lymphatic system relates to other body systems to maintain homeostasis.
Nervous System Module Nervous System Structures and Functions Assign function s to each of the cranialnerves.
Compareand contrast the anatomical features of the spinal cord in the cervical, thoracic and lumbarregions. Contrast the relative position of gray matter and white matter inthe spinal cord with the corresponding arrangement of gray and white matter in thebrain. Correlate forebrain regions to their majorfunctions s. Correlate hindbrain and midbrain regions totheir major function s. Describe the basic overall structure of the humanbrain. Describe the gross anatomy of the spinal cord and spinal nervesand specify their location relative to the anatomy of the vertebralcolumn.
Explain the roles of CSF, ventricles, and the blood brainbarrier. Identify how spinal structures relate to each other: Identify the location of major brainregions. Compare the somatic and autonomic nervoussystems. Compare the structure of myelinated vs. Distinguish between white matter and gray matter. Contrast the anatomy of theparasympathetic and sympathetic systems. Contrast the relative concentrations of ions in bodysolutions inside and outside of a cell sodium, potassium, calcium and chlorideions.
Describe examples of specific effectors dually innervatedby the autonomic nervous system and explain how each branch influences function in a giveneffector.
Describe major parasympathetic and sympatheticphysiological effects on target organs. Describe the local organization of each of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, including the pattern of innervation of target glands, organs, and tissues.
Describe the transmembrane potential or voltage across thecell membrane and how it is measured. Explain how a local electrical response in aneuron membrane is caused by stimulation. Explain how a single neurotransmitter may havedifferent effects at different postsynapticcells. Explain synaptic transmission in terms of the structuraland functional features of electrical and chemical synapses.
Explain temporal and spatial summation of synapticpotentials and discuss how action potentials differ from synaptic potentials. Explain the role of the autonomic nervous system as amotor division of the nervous system. Identify neurons based on anatomical features: Identify the four classes of neurotransmitters andidentify the most common excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Identify the neurotransmitters released bypreganglionic and postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervoussystems and describe their effects.
Identify the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells at asynapse. Interpret a graph showing the voltage vs. List the four types of CNS glial cells and describe theirfunction. List the two types of PNS glial cells and describe theirfunction. Describe the anatomical relationship between the glial cells and thePNS. Name examples of effectors innervated either by onlythe sympathetic branch or by only the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous systemand explain how that branch by itself influences function in a given effector.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Within a neuron, identify the soma, axon and dendrite anddescribe the main function of eachregion. The Sensory Functions of the Nervous System Classify receptors based onstructure,location relative to the stimulus, and types of signals theytransduce. Define dermatome and explain how dermatomes can be used inneurological exams for diagnosing nerve damage. Describe how the various structures of the ear conduct andtransduce sound. Describe pain in terms of hyperalgesia,analgesia, and receptive field.
Describe reflexes, reflex repsonses, and distinguish types ofreflexes. Describe the path of nerve impulses from the ear tovarious parts of the brain. Describe the path of nerve impulses from the gustatoryreceptors to various parts of the brain. Describe the path of nerve impulses from theolfactory receptors to various parts of the brain.
Describe the structures and functions of the eye. Describe the types of information modality detected by the receptors associated with the somesthetic senses and the phenomenon ofadaptation. Distinguish between static and dynamic equilibrium,describe the structures involved, and their functions. Explain how odorants activate olfactoryreceptors. Explain how the path of light through the eye causesvision. Explain pain function, nociceptor distribution, and distinguishthe fiber types that carry their signals.
Explain the distribution of receptors involved in providinginformation for our general somesthetic senses. Explain the gustation and describe the structuresinvolved. Identify and describe the functions of the accessory eyestructures, the tunics, and the optical components of the eye. Identify the hearing structures of the outer, middleand inner ear and describe their functions. Identify the muscles that help to coordinate eyemovement.
Predict the types of problems that would occur inthe body if the olfactory system was not functioning normally. Rostral means nearer the "front end," that is, the region of the nose and mouth. The suffix "-ad" is sometimes added to a positional term to indicate the idea of motion. Thus, cephalad means proceeding toward the head.
Such terms are useful occasionally in describing growth processes, but their application is best limited. In the limbs, proximal and distal are used to indicate, respectively, nearer to and farther from the root or attached end of the limb.
Proximal and distal have a special meaning in the case of the teeth. Internal and external mean, respectively, nearer to and farther from the center of an organ or a cavity. Superficial and deep mean, respectively, nearer to and farther from the surface of the body.
The term middle is used for a structure lying between two others that are anterior and posterior, or superior and inferior, or internal and external. In addition to the technical terms of position and direction, certain common expressions may be cautiously used in anatomical descriptions: These terms are free of ambiguity only if they are used in reference to the anatomical position.
A number of other common terms, such as "under," however, are generally best avoided. In this work we will use technical terms of position and direction. History of anatomy Anatomy can be traced from the Greek period, B. Subsequent highlights include the discovery of the compound microscopethe founding of microscopic anatomy by Malpighi seventeenth centurythe discovery of the circulation of the blood by Harveythe establishment of modern embryology by Wolff eighteenth centurythe gross classification of tissues by Bichatand many notable advances during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The best general introduction to the history of anatomy is Singer, C. Two other interesting works are Saunders, J.
Some useful works are cited below. Systemic anatomy Quain's Elements of Anatomy, 11th ed.
The most detailed account in English. Regional anatomy Gardner, E. A Regional Study of Human Structure, 4th ed. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Provides more detail than this book and includes extensive references to the literature.
Applied anatomy Abrahams, P. Surface and radiological anatomy Hamilton, W. Systemic atlases Sobotta, J. Regional atlases Bassett, D. Photographs and radiograms of anatomical sections. Other important crosssectional atlases are those by Eycleshymer and Schoemaker and by Symington They are great resources and it's so easy to connect to them from the text, so it would be a shame if those links ever become broken.
It is concise and easy to follow. I also appreciate that there is a decent amount of white space between lines of text, making it very easy on the eyes.
I think that this is important to note because ultimately I want students to read the text, and I think if it is easy to understand and easy to look at, they will be more likely to read it.
There is of course variation in section length, but that is to be expected. I think this book really shines in this area because the sections are easy to digest and understand, and are largely self-contained i.
It is similar to other books, starting with basics of anatomy, levels of organization of life, histology, then working into support structures, processes that maintain homeostasis, etc. I have not experienced any problems with images in fact, I quite like the imageslinks within chapters, or links from the table of contents to a particular section.